Massive release of hydrogen sulfide to the surface ocean and atmosphere during intervals of oceanic anoxia

@article{Kump2005MassiveRO,
  title={Massive release of hydrogen sulfide to the surface ocean and atmosphere during intervals of oceanic anoxia},
  author={Lee R. Kump and Alexander A. Pavlov and Michael A. Arthur},
  journal={Geology},
  year={2005},
  volume={33},
  pages={397-400}
}
Simple calculations show that if deep-water H2S concentrations increased beyond a critical threshold during oceanic anoxic intervals of Earth history, the chemocline separating sulfidic deep waters from oxygenated surface waters could have risen abruptly to the ocean surface (a chemocline upward excursion). Atmospheric photochemical modeling indicates that resulting fluxes of H 2S to the atmosphere (.2000 times the small modern flux from volcanoes) would likely have led to toxic levels of H 2S… 

Figures from this paper

Biogeochemical controls on photic-zone euxinia during the end-Permian mass extinction
Geochemical, biomarker, and isotopic evidence suggests that the end-Permian was characterized by extreme oceanic anoxia that may have led to hydrogen sulfide buildup and mass extinction. We use an
Mitigation of Extreme Ocean Anoxic Event Conditions by Organic Matter Sulfurization
Past occurrences of widespread and severe anoxia in the ocean have frequently been associated with abundant geological evidence for free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the water column, so‐called euxinic
Oceanic redox evolution around the end-Permian mass extinction at Meishan, South China
  • Lei Xiang, Hua Zhang, S. Shen
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
  • 2020
Nitrogen cycle feedbacks as a control on euxinia in the mid-Proterozoic ocean.
TLDR
This model shows how feedbacks caused the mid-Proterozoic ocean to exhibit a spatial/temporal separation between two states: photic zone NO(3)(-) with denitrification in lower anoxic waters, and N(2)-fixation-driven production overlying euxinia.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 42 REFERENCES
A new model for Proterozoic ocean chemistry
There was a significant oxidation of the Earth's surface around 2 billion years ago (2 Gyr). Direct evidence for this oxidation comes, mostly, from geological records of the redox-sensitive elements
Ocean stagnation and end-Permian anoxia
Ocean stagnation has been invoked to explain the widespread occurrence of organic-carbon–rich, laminated sediments interpreted to have been deposited under anoxic bottom waters at the time of the
Evidence for low sulphate and anoxia in a mid-Proterozoic marine basin
TLDR
An analysis of the iron chemistry of shales deposited in the marine Roper Basin, Australia, between about 1,500 and 1,400 million years ago, which record deep-water anoxia beneath oxidized surface water, helping to integrate a growing body of evidence favouring a long-lived intermediate state of the oceans.
Redox Stabilization of the Atmosphere and Oceans by Phosphorus-Limited Marine Productivity
TLDR
Calculations using a coupled model of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, phosphorus, oxygen, and iron indicate that the redox dependence of phosphorus burial in the oceans provides a powerful forcing mechanism for balancing production and consumption of atmospheric oxygen over geologic time.
Molybdenum Isotope Evidence for Widespread Anoxia in Mid-Proterozoic Oceans
How much dissolved oxygen was present in the mid-Proterozoic oceans between 1.8 and 1.0 billion years ago is debated vigorously. One model argues for oxygenation of the oceans soon after the initial
Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events: causes and consequences
Organic carbon-rich sediments are globally developed in pelagic sedimentary sequences of Aptian-Albian and Cenomanian-Turonian age. They formed in a variety of paleo-bathymetric settings including
Lower Triassic large sea-floor carbonate cements: Their origin and a mechanism for the prolonged biotic recovery from the end-Permian mass extinction
Precipitation of inorganic calcium carbonate is a common occurrence in both modern and ancient marine environments. However, synsedimentary growth of large (>5–10 cm) crystalline carbonate cements
Further evidence for the development of photic-zone euxinic conditions during Mesozoic oceanic anoxic events
Periods in Earth history characterized by extensive organic carbon deposition, so-called oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), are the subject of considerable scrutiny. Insight into the extent of anoxic
...
1
2
3
4
5
...