Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe

  title={Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe},
  author={W. Haak and Iosif Lazaridis and N. Patterson and N. Rohland and Swapan Mallick and B. Llamas and Guido Brandt and Susanne Nordenfelt and {\'E}adaoin Harney and Kristin Stewardson and Qiaomei Fu and Alissa Mittnik and E. B{\'a}nffy and Christos Economou and M. Francken and S. Friederich and Rafael Garrido Pena and F. Hallgren and V. Khartanovich and Aleksandr Khokhlov and Michael Kunst and P. Kuznetsov and H. Meller and O. Mochalov and V. Moiseyev and N. Nicklisch and S. Pichler and R. Risch and Manuel A. Rojo Guerra and C. Roth and Anna Sz{\'e}cs{\'e}nyi-Nagy and J. Wahl and M. Meyer and J. Krause and Dorcas Brown and D. Anthony and A. Cooper and K. Alt and D. Reich},
We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost four hundred thousand polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies1–8 and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of western and far… Expand
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