Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe

  title={Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe},
  author={Wolfgang Haak and Iosif Lazaridis and Nick J. Patterson and Nadin Rohland and Swapan Mallick and Bastien Llamas and Guido Brandt and Susanne Nordenfelt and {\'E}adaoin Harney and Kristin Stewardson and Qiaomei Fu and Alissa Mittnik and Eszter B{\'a}nffy and Christos Economou and Michael Francken and Susanne Friederich and Rafael Garrido Pena and Fredrik Hallgren and Valery Khartanovich and Aleksandr A Khokhlov and Michael Kunst and Pavel Kuznetsov and Harald Meller and Oleg Dmitrievich Mochalov and Vayacheslav Moiseyev and Nicole Nicklisch and Sandra L. Pichler and Roberto Risch and Manuel A. Rojo Guerra and Christina Roth and Anna Sz{\'e}cs{\'e}nyi-Nagy and Joachim Wahl and Matthias Meyer and Johannes Krause and Dorcas Brown and David Anthony and Alan Cooper and Kurt Werner Alt and David Reich},
We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost four hundred thousand polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies1–8 and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of western and far… 
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Reconstructing Prehistoric African Population Structure
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