Massive MIMO for next generation wireless systems


Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is an emerging technology that scales up MIMO by possibly orders of magnitude compared to the current state of the art. In this article, we follow up on our earlier exposition [1], with a focus on the developments in the last three years; most particularly, energy efficiency, exploitation of excess degrees of freedom, time-division duplex (TDD) calibration, techniques to combat pilot contamination, and entirely new channel measurements. With massive MIMO, we think of systems that use antenna arrays with a few hundred antennas simultaneously serving many tens of terminals in the same time-frequency resource. The basic premise behind massive MIMO is to reap all the benefits of conventional MIMO, but on a much greater scale. Overall, massive MIMO is an enabler for the development of future broadband (fixed and mobile) networks, which will be energy-efficient, secure, and robust, and will use the spectrum efficiently. As such, it is an enabler for the future digital society infrastructure that will connect the Internet of people and Internet of Things with clouds and other network infrastructure. Many different configurations and deployment scenarios for the actual antenna arrays used by a massive MIMO system can be envisioned (Fig. 1). Each antenna unit would be small and active, preferably fed via an optical or electric digital bus. Massive MIMO relies on spatial multiplexing, which in turn relies on the base station having good enough channel knowledge, on both the uplink and the downlink. On the uplink, this is easy to accomplish by having the terminals send pilots, based on which the base station estimates the channel responses to each of the terminals. The downlink is more difficult. In conventional MIMO systems such as the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard, the base station sends out pilot waveforms, based on which the terminals estimate the channel responses, quantize the thus obtained estimates, and feed them back to the base station. This will not be feasible in massive MIMO systems, at least not when operating in a high-mobility environment, for two reasons. First, optimal downlink pilots should be mutually orthogonal between the antennas. This means that the amount of time-frequency resources needed for downlink pilots scales with the number of antennas, so a massive MIMO system would require up to 100 times more such resources than a conventional system. Second, ABSTRACT

DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2014.6736761

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@article{Larsson2014MassiveMF, title={Massive MIMO for next generation wireless systems}, author={Erik G. Larsson and Ove Edfors and Fredrik Tufvesson and Thomas L. Marzetta}, journal={IEEE Communications Magazine}, year={2014}, volume={52}, pages={186-195} }