Masses, Radii, and Orbits of Small Kepler Planets: The Transition From Gaseous to Rocky Planets

  title={Masses, Radii, and Orbits of Small Kepler Planets: The Transition From Gaseous to Rocky Planets},
  author={Geoffrey W. Marcy and Howard T. Isaacson and Andrew W. Howard and Jason F. Rowe and Jon M. Jenkins and Stephen T. Bryson and David W. Latham and Steve B. Howell and Thomas Gautier and Natalie M. Batalha and Leslie J. A. Rogers and David R. Ciardi and Debra A. Fischer and Ronald L. Gilliland and Hans Kjeldsen and J{\o}rgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Daniel Huber and William J. Chaplin and Sarbani Basu and Lars A. Buchhave and Samuel N. Quinn and William J. Borucki and David G. Koch and Roger C. Hunter and Douglas A. Caldwell and Jeffrey Edward van Cleve and Rea Kolbl and Lauren M. Weiss and Erik A. Petigura and Sara Seager and Timothy D. Morton and John Asher Johnson and Sarah Ballard and C. J. Burke and William D. Cochran and Michael Endl and Phillip J. MacQueen and Mark E. Everett and Jack J. Lissauer and Eric B. Ford and Guillermo Torres and François Fressin and Timothy M. Brown and Jason H. Steffen and David Charbonneau and Gibor Basri and Dimitar D. Sasselov and Joshua N. Winn and Roberto Sanchis-Ojeda and Jessie L. Christiansen and Elisabeth R. Adams and Christopher E. Henze and A. K. Dupree and Daniel C. Fabrycky and Jonathan J. Fortney and Jill Tarter and Matthew J. Holman and Peter Tenenbaum and Avi Shporer and P. W. Lucas and William F. Welsh and Jerome A. Orosz and Timothy R. Bedding and Tiago L. Campante and Guy R. Davies and Yvonne P. Elsworth and Rasmus Handberg and Saskia Hekker and Christoffer Karoff and Steven D. Kawaler and Mikkel N. Lund and M. Sloth Lundkvist and Travis S. Metcalfe and Andrea Miglio and Victor Silva Aguirre and Dennis Stello and Timothy R. White and Alan P. Boss and E. K. Devore and A. D. Gould and Andrej Pr{\vs}a and Eric Agol and Thomas Barclay and Jeffrey L. Coughlin and Erik J. Brugamyer and Fergal Robert Mullally and Elisa V. Quintana and Martin D. Still and Susan E. hompson and David R. Morrison and Joseph D. Twicken and J.-M. D'esert and Joshua A. Carter and Justin R. Crepp and Guillaume H'ebrard and Alexandre Santerne and Claire Moutou and Charles K. Sobeck and Douglas M. Hudgins and Michael R. Haas and Paul Robertson and J. Lillo-Box and David Barrado},
  journal={Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series},
We report on the masses, sizes, and orbits of the planets orbiting 22 Kepler stars. There are 49 planet candidates around these stars, including 42 detected through transits and 7 revealed by precise Doppler measurements of the host stars. Based on an analysis of the Kepler brightness measurements, along with high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, Doppler spectroscopy, and (for 11 stars) asteroseismology, we establish low false-positive probabilities (FPPs) for all of the transiting planets… Expand
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