Mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017

  title={Mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017},
  author={Andrew Shepherd and Erik R. Ivins and E. Rignot and Ben E. Smith and Michiel van den Broeke and Isabella Velicogna and Pippa L. Whitehouse and Kate H. Briggs and Ian R. Joughin and Gerhard Krinner and Sophie M. J. Nowicki and Tony Payne and Theodore A. Scambos and Nicole Schlegel and A Geruo and C{\'e}cile Agosta and Andreas P. Ahlstr{\o}m and G. S. Babonis and Valentina R. Barletta and Alejandro Blazquez and Jennifer A. Bonin and Be{\'a}ta M. Csath{\'o} and Richard I. Cullather and Denis Felikson and Xavier Fettweis and Ren{\'e} Forsberg and Hubert Gall{\'e}e and Alex S. Gardner and Lin Gilbert and Andreas Groh and Brian C. Gunter and Edward Hanna and Christoph Harig and Veit Helm and Alexander Horvath and Martin Horwath and Shfaqat Abbas Khan and Kristian Kjellerup Kjeldsen and Hannes Konrad and Peter L. Langen and Benoit S. Lecavalier and Bryant D. Loomis and Scott B. Luthcke and Malcolm McMillan and Daniele Melini and Sebastian H. Mernild and Yara Mohajerani and Philip Moore and J{\'e}r{\'e}mie Mouginot and Gorka Moyano and Alan S. Muir and Thomas Nagler and Grace A. Nield and Johan Nilsson and Brice P. Y. Noel and In{\`e}s N. Otosaka and Mark E. Pattle and William Richard Peltier and N. Pie and Roelof Rietbroek and Helmut Rott and Louise Sandberg-S{\o}rensen and Ingo Sasgen and Himanshu Save and Bernd Scheuchl and Ernst J. O. Schrama and Ludwig Schr{\"o}der and Ki‐Weon Seo and Sebastian Bjerregaard Simonsen and Thomas Slater and Giorgio Spada and Tyler Clark Sutterley and Matthieu Jean Talpe and Lev Tarasov and Willem Jan van de Berg and W. Wal and Melchior van Wessem and Bramha Dutt Vishwakarma and David N. Wiese and Bert Wouters},
The Antarctic Ice Sheet is an important indicator of climate change and driver of sea-level rise. Here we combine satellite observations of its changing volume, flow and gravitational attraction with modelling of its surface mass balance to show that it lost 2,720 ± 1,390 billion tonnes of ice between 1992 and 2017, which corresponds to an increase in mean sea level of 7.6 ± 3.9 millimetres (errors are one standard deviation). Over this period, ocean-driven melting has caused rates of ice loss… 
Mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2018
  • Andrew Erik Eric Ben Michiel Isabella Pippa Kate Ian Gerh Shepherd Ivins Rignot Smith van den Broeke Velicog, A. Shepherd, J. Wuite
  • Environmental Science
  • 2019
Comparing and combining 26 individual satellite measurements of changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet’s volume, flow and gravitational potential to produce a reconciled estimate of its mass balance produces comparable results that approach the trajectory of the highest rates of sea-level rise projected by the IPCC.
Trends in Antarctic Ice Sheet Elevation and Mass
Fluctuations in Antarctic Ice Sheet elevation and mass occur over a variety of time scales, owing to changes in snowfall and ice flow. Here we disentangle these signals by combining 25 years of
Interannual variations in meltwater input to the Southern Ocean from Antarctic ice shelves
For the four largest ‘cold-water’ ice shelves, meltwater fluxes are partitioned into deep and shallow sources to reveal distinct signatures of temporal variability, providing insights into climate forcing of basal melting and the impact of this melting on the Southern Ocean.
Calibration of basal melt on past ice discharge lowers projections of Antarctica’s sea level contribution
Abstract. Antarctic mass loss is the largest contributor to uncertainties in sea level projections on centennial timescales. In this study the contribution of Antarctica’s ice discharge to future sea
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Instantaneous Antarctic ice sheet mass loss driven by thinning ice shelves
Recent observations show that the rate at which the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) is contributing to sea level rise is increasing. Increases in ice‐ocean heat exchange have the potential to induce
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Abstract. The Antarctic ice sheet mass balance is a major component of the sea level budget and results from the difference of two fluxes of a similar magnitude: ice flow discharging in the ocean and
Widespread increase in dynamic imbalance in the Getz region of Antarctica from 1994 to 2018
Overall, dynamic imbalance accounts for two thirds of the mass loss from this region of West Antarctica over the past 25-years, with a longer-term response to ocean forcing the likely driving mechanism.
Downscaled surface mass balance in Antarctica: impacts of subsurface processes and large-scale atmospheric circulation
Abstract. Antarctic surface mass balance (SMB) is largely determined by precipitation over the continent and subject to regional climate variability related to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and
Antarctic ice mass variations from 1979 to 2017 driven by anomalous precipitation accumulation
It is shown that accumulated (time-integrated) precipitation explains most inter-annual anomalies of Antarctic ice mass change during the GRACE period (2003–2017), and that accumulated Antarctic precipitation contributes to significant ice mass loss acceleration in the Pacific sector and deceleration in the Atlantic-Indian Sectors, forming a bi-polar spatial pattern.


Mass gains of the Antarctic ice sheet exceed losses
During 2003 to 2008, the mass gain of the Antarctic ice sheet from snow accumulation exceeded the mass loss from ice discharge by 49 Gt/yr (2.5% of input), as derived from ICESat laser measurements
A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance
There is good agreement between different satellite methods—especially in Greenland and West Antarctica—and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty, and the mass balance of Earth’s polar ice sheets is estimated by combining the results of existing independent techniques.
Snowfall‐driven mass change on the East Antarctic ice sheet
An improved understanding of processes dominating the sensitive balance between mass loss primarily due to glacial discharge and mass gain through precipitation is essential for determining the
Surface mass balance contributions to acceleration of Antarctic ice mass loss during 2003–2013
  • K. Seo, C. Wilson, J. Eom
  • Environmental Science, Physics
    Journal of geophysical research. Solid earth
  • 2015
It is found that over much of the continent, the acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet can be explained by precipitation anomalies, but on the Antarctic Peninsula and other parts of West Antarctica, mass changes are not explaining by precipitation and are likely associated with ice discharge rate increases.
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Ice sheet mass balance estimates have improved substantially in recent years using a variety of techniques, over different time periods, and at various levels of spatial detail. Considerable
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We use 3 years of Cryosat‐2 radar altimeter data to develop the first comprehensive assessment of Antarctic ice sheet elevation change. This new data set provides near‐continuous (96%) coverage of
Lower satellite-gravimetry estimates of Antarctic sea-level contribution
A new model of GIA is adopted, developed from geological constraints, which produces GIA rates systematically lower than those of previous models, and an improved fit to independent uplift data is applied, finding that West Antarctica is nearly in balance and that East Antarctica is gaining substantial mass.
Recent loss of floating ice and the consequent sea level contribution
We combine new and published satellite observations and the results of a coupled ice‐ocean model to provide the first estimate of changes in the quantity of ice floating in the global oceans and the
A method of combining ICESat and GRACE satellite data to constrain Antarctic mass balance
Measurements from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) aboard NASA's ICESat satellite (2001 launch) will be used to estimate the secular change in Antarctic ice mass. We have simulated 5
Antarctic ice-mass balance 2003 to 2012: regional reanalysis of GRACE satellite gravimetry measurements with improved estimate of glacial-isostatic adjustment based on GPS uplift rates
Abstract. We present regional-scale mass balances for 25 drainage basins of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) from satellite observations of the Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for time period