Mass and Kinetic Energy of the Homunculus Nebula around η Carinae

  title={Mass and Kinetic Energy of the Homunculus Nebula around $\eta$ Carinae},
  author={Nathan Smith and Robert D. Gehrz and Philip M. Hinz and William F. Hoffmann and Joseph L. Hora and Eric E. Mamajek and Michael R. Meyer},
  journal={The Astronomical Journal},
  pages={1458 - 1466}
We examine thermal infrared images of η Car at wavelengths from 4.8 to 25 μm obtained with the MIRAC3 camera system at the Magellan Observatory, and we conclude that η Car's circumstellar Homunculus Nebula contains much more mass (≳12 M⊙) and kinetic energy (1049.6–1050 ergs) than had previously been recognized. Excess far-infrared emission from a large mass of cold dust had been discovered recently by Morris et al., which they attributed to 110 K dust in a compact equatorial torus. Our images… 

Kinematics and Ultraviolet to Infrared Morphology of the Inner Homunculus of η Carinae

We present the first ultraviolet and optical images of η Car and its circumstellar Homunculus nebula, obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/High Resolution Camera (ACS/HRC) on board the


Single-dish submillimeter observations have recently revealed the existence of a substantial, chemically peculiar molecular gas component located in the innermost circumstellar environment of the

Predicted radio-continuum emission from the little Homunculus of the η Carinae nebula

In this paper, we compute theoretically the flux density and the spectral index of the free-free radiation at radio wavelengths produced by shocks in the inner bipolar emission nebula called the

All Things Homunculus

The ``Homunculus'' nebula around Eta Carinae is one of our most valuable tools for understanding the extreme nature of episodic pre-supernova mass loss in the most massive stars, perhaps even more

η Carinae's Dusty Homunculus Nebula from Near-infrared to Submillimeter Wavelengths: Mass, Composition, and Evidence for Fading Opacity

Using radiative transfer modeling, it is found that the two best-fit dust models yield compositions which are consistent with CNO-processed material, with iron, pyroxene and other metal-rich silicates, corundum, and magnesium-iron sulfide in common.

The Structure of the Homunculus. I. Shape and Latitude Dependence from H2 and [Fe II] Velocity Maps of η Carinae

High-resolution long-slit spectra obtained with the Phoenix spectrograph on Gemini South provide our most accurate probe of the three-dimensional structure of the Homunculus Nebula around η Carinae.

Fermi acceleration along the orbit of η Carinae

Context. The η Carinae binary system hosts one of the most massive stars, which features the highest known mass-loss rate. This dense wind encounters the much faster wind expelled by the stellar

Resolving the Hα-emitting Region in the Wind of η Carinae

The massive evolved star η Carinae is the most luminous star in the Milky Way and has the highest steady wind mass-loss rate of any known star. Radiative transfer models of the spectrum by Hillier et

Cleaning Up η Carinae: Detection of Ammonia in the Homunculus Nebula

We report the first detection of ammonia in the Homunculus Nebula around η Carinae, which is also the first detection of emission from a polyatomic molecule in this or any other luminous blue

Eta carinae and the homunculus: far infrared/submillimetre spectral lines detected with the Herschel Space Observatory

The evolved massive binary star η Carinae underwent eruptive mass-loss events that formed the complex bi-polar ‘Homunculus’ nebula harbouring tens of solar masses of unusually nitrogen-rich gas and



A disrupted circumstellar torus inside η Carinae's homunculus nebula

We present thermal infrared images of the bipolar nebula surrounding η Carinae at six wavelengths from 4.8 to 24.5 μm. These were obtained with the MIRAC3 camera system at the Magellan Observatory.

The Infrared Morphology of η Carinae

We present results of a recent 2–12 μm ground-based infrared (IR) imaging study of Eta Carinae. We discuss the comparative spatial morphology of the bipolar lobes, the "skirt" defined by the

Dissecting the Homunculus nebula around Eta Carinae with spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

Near-infrared emission lines are unique diagnostics of the geometry, structure, kinematics, and excitation of the circumstellar ejecta of η Carinae, and give clues to the nature of its wind. The

Discovery of a massive equatorial torus in the η Carinae stellar system

The enigmatic object η Carinae is believed to represent an important, but short-lived, unstable phase in the life of the most massive stars, occurring shortly before they explode as supernovae or

Hubble Space Telescope Proper-Motion Measurements of the η Carinae Nebula

We present proper-motion measurements of the bipolar lobes and equatorial disk features ejected from η Carinae during the last century and deduce their relative ages in order to determine the

Proper Motions in the Ejecta of η Carinae with a 50 Year Baseline

Observations of η Carinae from three separate epochs spanning a total of 50 years are used to measure the proper motions of several easily identifiable features in the Homunculus Nebula. Our

Astronomy: A massive cool dust torus around η Carinae?

The star η Carinae, the most luminous known in the Milky Way galaxy, is a puzzling object. It is surrounded by a cloud of glowing gas that shows a distinct ‘pinched waist’ appearance, whose origin

The Porous Atmosphere of η Carinae

  • N. Shaviv
  • Physics
    The Astrophysical journal
  • 2000
It is shown that by using the classical stellar atmosphere and wind theory, it is impossible to construct a consistent wind model in which a sufficiently small amount of mass is shed to drive a thick wind with a mass-loss rate substantially higher than the observed one.

On the Nature of the Central Source in η Carinae

Long-slit spectroscopic observations of η Carinae and its Homunculus have recently been obtained using STIS on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have extracted the spectrum of the central source