Mass Mortality of Krill Caused by Parasitoid Ciliates

@article{GmezGutirrez2003MassMO,
  title={Mass Mortality of Krill Caused by Parasitoid Ciliates},
  author={Jaime G{\'o}mez‐Guti{\'e}rrez and William Thornton Peterson and Alex De Robertis and Richard D. Brodeur},
  journal={Science},
  year={2003},
  volume={301},
  pages={339 - 339}
}
Euphausiids, commonly known as krill, often dominate pelagic crustacean productivity of the world’s oceans. The ecology of these crustaceans has been extensively studied, but sources of mortality remain poorly understood. Predation and starvation are traditionally assumed to be the most important causes of death; however, little attention has been given to the identification of other sources of natural mortality (1). Here we report on a ciliate parasite with significant infection rates in… 
Parasites and Diseases
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The apparently low parasite diversity of E. superba is likely associated with its Antarctic zoogeographic pattern; where, parasites have not invaded the Antarctic krill with the same evolutionary success as have occurred with other euphausiid species from tropical, subtropical, temperate, and even Arctic ecosystems.
Krill-Parasite Interactions
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All the available, worldwide reports of epibionts and parasites of species of the Order Euphausiacea published between 1885 and 2015 are reviewed, providing a relatively broad and coherent perspective about interespecific interactions inferred in the bases of diversity, prevalence patterns, intensity, parasite–host size ratios, and availability of microhabitats.
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that all types of parasites can affect approximately 14% of N. simplex individuals, which means that Collinia spp.
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TLDR
The results suggest the possibility that the krill had been initially affected by parasite infections, and the parasitized spots were secondary infected by environmental bacteria after the parasites had escaped from the host body.
Unusual Mortality of Krill (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California1
TLDR
A hypothetical scenario describing the sea-surface aggregations and beach strandings of N. difficilis is presented and it is suggested that upwelling conditions occurred and the diatom bloom was in its final phase.
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