Mass Estimation of Santacrucian Sloths from the Early Miocene Santa Cruz Formation of Patagonia, Argentina

@inproceedings{Toledo2012MassEO,
  title={Mass Estimation of Santacrucian Sloths from the Early Miocene Santa Cruz Formation of Patagonia, Argentina},
  author={N{\'e}stor Toledo and Guillermo H. Cassini and Sergio F. Vizca{\'i}no and M. Susana Bargo},
  year={2012}
}
Miocene deposits of the Santa Cruz Formation, Patagonia, comprise a diverse and excellently preserved vertebrate fauna, allowing detailed paleobiological and paleoecological studies based on three ecological parameters: body mass, diet, and substrate preference. In contrast to the small and arboreal extant sloths, Bradypus and Choloepus, Santacrucian sloths were much more diverse and larger, and comprised 11 genera previously characterized as arboreal or climbing forms. Here, we focus on body… Expand
The Basicranium and Orbital Region of the Early Miocene Eucholoeops ingens Ameghino, (Xenarthra, Pilosa, Megalonychidae)
TLDR
The basicranial and orbital morphology of Eucholoeops ingens is shown to possess numerous plesiomorphic aspects, including the presence of a descending lamina of the pterygoid that is hemispherical in outline, and the absence of an alisphenoid/parietal contact, no doubt due to its position as the oldest megalonychid known from relatively complete material. Expand
Predation of the giant Miocene caiman Purussaurus on a mylodontid ground sloth in the wetlands of proto-Amazonia
TLDR
A tibia of the mylodontid sloth Pseudoprepotherium bearing 46 predation tooth marks from the Peruvian Amazonia provides an unusual snapshot of the dietary preferences of Purussaurus and reveals that prior to reaching its giant size, young individuals might have fed upon terrestrial mammals of about the size of a capybara. Expand
Postcranial anatomy of the extinct terrestrial sloth Simomylodon uccasamamensis (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Pliocene of the Bolivian Altiplano, and its evolutionary implications
Extinct terrestrial sloths are common elements of the late Cenozoic South American fossil record. Among them, Mylodontinae species were particularly abundant in the Americas throughout theExpand
Body mass estimation for †Cyonasua (Procyonidae, Carnivora) and related taxa based on postcranial skeleton
TLDR
The body mass of †Cyonasua would have been at least twice as high as the mean of the extant procyonid Procyon cancrivorus, indicating that it was probably able to fend off predators and quite capable of climbing slowly on thick-enough branches. Expand
A new enigmatic Late Miocene mylodontoid sloth from northern South America
TLDR
This taxon supports previous studies of the sloth assemblage from the Urumaco sequence as it further indicates that there are several sloth lineages present that are unknown from the better sampled areas of southern South America. Expand
First record of Nematherium (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Pinturas Formation (Burdigalian, early Miocene), Santa Cruz Province, Argentina
Abstract The Pinturas Formation (Burdigalian, early Miocene) crops out at several localities in the upper valley of the Pinturas river and its tributaries, northwestern Santa Cruz Province,Expand
A reappraisal of the phylogeny of Mylodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) and the divergence of mylodontine and lestodontine sloths
TLDR
The phylogeny of mylodontid sloths has recently been the subject of multiple studies, and a new and detailed phylogenetic analysis is conducted, after adding new characters and taxa previously unexplored from a phylogenetic point of view to represent the first exhaustive phylogenetic study on the MyLodontidae that incorporates features coded for the entire skeleton. Expand
Evolution of body size in anteaters and sloths (Xenarthra, Pilosa): phylogeny, metabolism, diet and substrate preferences
TLDR
Statistics were significantly different from the null-hypothesis, supporting the hypothesis that body size variation correlates with the phylogenetic pattern of Pilosa, and influence of basal metabolic rate, dietary habits and substrate preference appears to be the main factor in shaping evolution of sloth body size. Expand
The earliest well-documented occurrence of sexual dimorphism in extinct sloths: evolutionary and palaeoecological insights
TLDR
Evidence of sexual dimorphism is presented in the morphology of cranial and postcranial remains of Simomylodon uccasamamensis, representing the earliest unequivocal occurrence of size-based SD in an extinct sloth species. Expand
Advantages and Limitations in the Use of Extant Xenarthrans (Mammalia) as Morphological Models for Paleobiological Reconstruction
TLDR
The limitations of the use of extant xenarthrans as morphological models for paleobiological reconstructions are evaluated and the need to apply other approaches, such as mechanics, that address form-function relationships but are not necessarily based on known biological comparators is suggested. Expand
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 89 REFERENCES
Body mass estimation in Early Miocene native South American ungulates: a predictive equation based on 3D landmarks
TLDR
South American native ungulates include extinct taxa that evolved within the geographical context given by the isolation of South America during most of the Cenozoic and are particularly interesting for paleobiological studies due to their diversity, richness and quality of preservation of the specimens. Expand
A baseline paleoecological study for the Santa Cruz Formation (late–early Miocene) at the Atlantic coast of Patagonia, Argentina
TLDR
This study attempts to reconstruct the trophic structure of the Santacrucian mammalian community with precise stratigraphic control, and predicts an imbalance in both CB and PLC faunas which can be seen by comparing the secondary productivity of the ecosystem and the energetic requirements of the carnivores in it. Expand
Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia. High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation
Paleontologists must often rely on ‘Rosetta stones’— exceptionally preserved examples of ancient ecosystems—in order to make accurate interpretations of the ancient world. For researchers interestedExpand
BODY MASS ESTIMATIONS IN LUJANIAN (LATE PLEISTOCENE-EARLY HOLOCENE OF SOUTH AMERICA) MAMMAL MEGAFAUNA
In this paper a data base is initiated, with the body mass estimations for a number of xenarthran and epitherian species of the Lujanian Land Mammal Age (late Pleis- tocene - early Holocene of SouthExpand
On the Evolution of Large Size in Mammalian Herbivores of Cenozoic Faunas of Southern South America
TLDR
The impact of the mega-mammal extinction on the post-Pleistocene evolution of plant communities has not been studied for South America, but it is clear that it produced an enormous ecological gap in the herbivorous guild. Expand
Predominance of Orthal Masticatory Movements in the Early Miocene Eucholaeops (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megalonychidae) and Other Megatherioid Sloths
TLDR
The analysis of the tooth wear facets, combined with the shape of the temporomandibular joint, the presence of a fused mandibular symphysis, and a well-developed temporalis muscle, indicates that the orthal component was predominant during mastication. Expand
Body mass estimation in xenarthra: A predictive equation suitable for all quadrupedal terrestrial placentals?
TLDR
Surprisingly, although obtained from ungulates and xenarthrans, these five selected equations were also able to predict the body mass of species from groups as different as rodents, carnivores, hyracoideans, or tubulidentates, suggesting the presence of a complex common allometric pattern for all quadrupedal placentals. Expand
PALEOECOLOGÍA DE LA FORMACIÓN SANTA CRUZ (MIOCENO INFERIOR) EN EL EXTREMO SUDESTE DE LA PATAGONIA
"The Santa Cruz Formation cointains one of the most di verse and rich vertebrate fossil assemblages in South America. Palaeoecological interpretation of this unit is based on the analysis of 22Expand
The Forelimb of Early Miocene Sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Folivora): Morphometrics and Functional Implications for Substrate Preferences
TLDR
The results suggest that fossil sloths have a different functional pattern of forelimb use than that of extant ones, probably more similar to vermilinguas and pangolins, including putative good digging capabilities and/or semiarboreal habits. Expand
Body size of Smilodon (Mammalia: Felidae)
The body masses of the three large saber‐toothed machairodontines, Smilodon gracilis, S. fatalis, and S. populator, were estimated on the basis of 36 osteological variables from the appendicularExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...