Martina Bergman‐Osterberg (1849–1915): creating a professional role for women in physical training

@article{Bloomfield2005MartinaB,
  title={Martina Bergman‐Osterberg (1849–1915): creating a professional role for women in physical training},
  author={Anne B. Bloomfield},
  journal={History of Education},
  year={2005},
  volume={34},
  pages={517 - 534}
}
  • A. Bloomfield
  • Published 1 September 2005
  • Education
  • History of Education
Martina Bergman‐Osterberg came to London from Sweden versed in the theory and practice of Swedish gymnastics as taught by Per Henrik Ling (1776–1881), and introduced his system into British schools, first while working for the London School Board and subsequently by establishing the Dartford College of Physical Training. This paper examines the nature of her thinking, through specific reference to her own manuscripts and publications. It also places her within a wider historical context… 
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References

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Physical Education
TLDR
Physical education in Great Britain and the Dominions originated in the elementary schools, while the educational, medical and recreative gymnastics were based on Per Henrik Ling's principles.
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Die Deutsche Turnkunst (1816), cited in F. C. Leonard, Guide to the History of Physical Education
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