Marrow Stromal Cells as Stem Cells for Nonhematopoietic Tissues

  title={Marrow Stromal Cells as Stem Cells for Nonhematopoietic Tissues},
  author={D. J. Prockop},
  • D. Prockop
  • Published in Science 4 April 1997
  • Biology
Marrow stromal cells can be isolated from other cells in marrow by their tendency to adhere to tissue culture plastic. The cells have many of the characteristics of stem cells for tissues that can roughly be defined as mesenchymal, because they can be differentiated in culture into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and even myoblasts. Therefore, marrow stromal cells present an intriguing model for examining the differentiation of stem cells. Also, they have several characteristics that… 
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The composition, ontogeny, and function in physiological as well as pathological conditions of stroma are discussed, which includes, among other cell types, macrophages, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells.
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Adult stem cells isolated from marrow aspirates of volunteer donors could be induced to differentiate exclusively into the adipocytic, chondrocytic, or osteocytic lineages.
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The current understanding of bone marrow stroma and MSCs is reviewed and their potential therapeutic role in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is reviewed.
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A standardized assay by light scattering is developed to measure the content of rapidly self‐renewing cells (RS cells) in preparations of MSCs and enables us to isolate RS cells that were up to 90% clonogenic and that generated single cell–derived colonies that differentiated into either mineralizing cells or adipocytes with appropriate additions to the medium.
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The literature that lends credibility to the theory that highly plastic BMCs have a role in maintenance and repair of nonhematopoietic tissue is reviewed and the possible mechanisms by which this may occur are discussed.


Stromal cells in long-term cultures: keys to the elucidation of hematopoietic development?
How stromal cell lines have been crucial tools for the detection, isolation, and maintenance of rare pluripotent stem cells and B lineage cells is summarized.
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A negative immunoselection procedure to remove contaminating hematopoietic cells and to isolate nearly homogeneous populations of early human stromal cells derived from the plastic‐adherent mononuclear marrow cells cultured in the presence of serum have the characteristics of authentic human osteoblast precursor cells which also are capable of differentiating into adipocytes.
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A method has been described for the long-term culture of human bone marrow cells in liquid medium and the adherent layer consisted of mononuclear phagocytic cells, endothelial cells, and lipid-laden adipocytes, the latter being essential for long- term hematopoiesis.
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The study of mesenchymal stem cells, whether isolated from embryos or adults, provides the basis for the emergence of a new therapeutic technology of self‐cell repair.
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