Markers that discriminate between European and African ancestry show limited variation within Africa

  title={Markers that discriminate between European and African ancestry show limited variation within Africa},
  author={Heather E. Collins-Schramm and Rick A. Kittles and Darwin J. Operario and James L. Weber and Lindsey A. Criswell and Richard S. Cooper and Michael F. Seldin},
  journal={Human Genetics},
Abstract. Markers informative for ancestry are necessary for admixture mapping and improving case-control association analyses. In particular, African Americans are an admixed population for which genetic studies require accurately evaluating admixture. This will require markers that can be used in African Americans to determine if a given genomic region is of European or African ancestry. This report shows that, despite studies indicating high intra-African sequence variation, markers with… 

Putative ancestral origins of chromosomal segments in individual african americans: implications for admixture mapping.

It is suggested that admixture mapping in the African American population can provide a powerful approach to defining genetic factors for some disease phenotypes.

Using ancestry-informative markers to define populations and detect population stratification

The debate about the quantity and methods for selection of highly informative marker loci required to characterize populations that vary in substructure or the degree of admixture is focused on, and how these theoretically desirable approaches can be effectively put into practice is discussed.

A genomewide single-nucleotide-polymorphism panel with high ancestry information for African American admixture mapping.

Simulations show that this more informative panel of SNP ancestry-informative markers improves power for admixture mapping in African Americans when ethnicity risk ratios are modest, and is particularly important in the application of admixtures mapping in complex genetic diseases.

Markers informative for ancestry demonstrate consistent megabase-length linkage disequilibrium in the African American population

Examination of several genomic segments provides strong evidence that appropriate selection of informative markers is a crucial prerequisite for the application of admixture mapping to the AA population.

Mexican American ancestry-informative markers: examination of population structure and marker characteristics in European Americans, Mexican Americans, Amerindians and Asians

The AIMs demonstrated the variation in ancestral composition of individual Mexican Americans, providing evidence of applicability in admixtures mapping and in controlling for structure in association tests, and provide additional support for the practical application of admixture mapping in the Mexican American population.

Examination of ancestry and ethnic affiliation using highly informative diallelic DNA markers: application to diverse and admixed populations and implications for clinical epidemiology and forensic medicine

Overall, the study demonstrates that AIMs can provide a useful adjunct to forensic medicine, pharmacogenomics and disease studies in which major ancestry or ethnic affiliation might be linked to specific outcomes.

Admixture mapping comes of age.

A historical perspective is provided, AIM panels and software packages are reviewed, and recent successes and unexpected insights into human diseases that exhibit disparate rates across human populations are discussed.

A genomewide single-nucleotide-polymorphism panel for Mexican American admixture mapping.

It is shown, using realistic simulation parameters that are based on the analyses of MAM genotyping results, that this panel of SNP AIMs provides good power for detecting disease-associated chromosomal segments for genes with modest ethnicity risk ratios.

Dissecting the Within-Africa Ancestry of Populations of African Descent in the Americas

While continental ancestry reflects gender-specific admixture processes influenced by different socio-historical practices in the Americas, the within-Africa maternal ancestry reflects the diverse colonial histories of the slave trade.



Markers for mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium in African American and Hispanic populations.

A map of polymorphic markers appropriate for MALD mapping by assessing allele frequencies of 744 short tandem repeats in African Americans, Hispanics, European Americans, and Asians is described, by choosing STR markers that have large differences in composite delta, log-likelihood ratios, and/or I*(2) for Mald.

Ethnic-difference markers for use in mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium.

DNA-pooling technique was used to screen microsatellite and diallelic insertion/deletion markers for allele-frequency differences between putative representatives of the parental populations of the admixed Mexican American (MA) and African American (AA) populations, suggesting that EDMs with large interpopulation and small intrapopulation differences can be readily identified for MALD studies in both AA and MA populations.

Estimation of admixture and detection of linkage in admixed populations by a Bayesian approach: application to African-American populations.

We describe a novel method for analysis of marker genotype data from admixed populations, based on a hybrid of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in which the posterior distribution is generated by

Association mapping in structured populations.

This article describes a novel, statistically valid, method for case-control association studies in structured populations that uses a set of unlinked genetic markers to infer details of population structure, and to estimate the ancestry of sampled individuals, before using this information to test for associations within subpopulations.

Nuclear DNA diversity in worldwide distributed human populations.

The Apportionment of Human Diversity

It has always been obvious that organisms vary, even to those pre-Darwinian idealists who saw most individual variation as distorted shadows of an ideal. It has been equally apparent, even to those

Africans: The History of a Continent

1. The frontiersmen of mankind 2. The emergence of food-producing communities 3. The impact of metals 4. Christianity and Islam 5. Colonising society in Western Africa 6. Colonising society in

Genic variation within and between the three major races of man, Caucasoids, Negroids, and Mongoloids.

Data for protein and blood group loci was analyzed separately because the detectability of gene differences may be different.