Mariner IV Photography of Mars: Initial Results

@article{Leighton1965MarinerIP,
  title={Mariner IV Photography of Mars: Initial Results},
  author={Robert B. Leighton and Bruce C. Murray and Robert Phillip Sharp and J. D. Allen and Richard K. Sloan},
  journal={Science},
  year={1965},
  volume={149},
  pages={627 - 630}
}
The 22 photographs of Mars taken by Mariner IV have been successfully received on earth. The Martian surface photographed is rather densely populated with impact craters whose sizes range up to at least 120 kilometers in diameter. We infer that the visible Martian surface is extremely old and that neither a dense atmosphere nor oceans have been present on the planet since the cratered surface was formed. 
Implications of the Mariner IV Photography of Mars
LEIGHTON et al.1 and Loomis2 have recently provided brief assessments of various aspects of the Mariner IV photographs of Mars. Their conclusions imply an almost universal acceptance at the present
Age of Craters on Mars
TLDR
No conclusions can presently be drawn from these photographs concerning the early Martian environment, because the crater density observed by Mariner IV points to an age only one-sixth that of the lunar maria, or 300 to 800 million years.
Studies of the surface of Mars /very early in the era of spacecraft reconnaissance/
There is probably no moment in the history of studies of Mars, including the year 1877, in which our knowledge of that planet is changing more rapidly. Prior to 1965 it was generally believed that
Mariner 6 and 7 television pictures: preliminary analysis.
TLDR
Mariners 6 and 7 have shown Mars to have its own distinctive features, unknown elsewhere within the solar system, thought to be like the earth.
Changes on the Surface of Mars Resulting from Inner Factors and Impactors
Images of the Martian surface transmitted to Earth by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft were recently interpreted as evidence of the presence of liquid water (Malin & Edgett, 2000). This finding
Martian Craters: Comparison of Statistical Counts
Comparisons of the various crater counts obtained from the Mariner IV photographs indicate that, out of 300 to 600 possible craters mapped by different investigators, only about 120 craters can be
Mariner 6 television pictures: first report.
TLDR
The results of a first, qualitative study of the Mariner 6 television pictures, carried out on the uncalibrated data within a few days after receipt on Earth, are summarized.
Mariner IV Measurements near Mars: Initial Results.
Mariner IV encounter sequence during approach and occultation of Mars on July 14 and 15, 1965
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References

The Measure of the Moon