Marine heatwaves threaten global biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services

@article{Smale2019MarineHT,
  title={Marine heatwaves threaten global biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services},
  author={Dan A. Smale and Thomas Wernberg and Eric C. J. Oliver and Mads Solgaard Thomsen and Ben P. Harvey and Sandra C. Straub and Michael T. Burrows and Lisa V. Alexander and Jessica A. Benthuysen and Markus G. Donat and Ming Feng and Alistair J. Hobday and Neil J. Holbrook and Sarah E. Perkins‐Kirkpatrick and Hillary A. Scannell and Alex Sen Gupta and Benjamin L. Payne and Pippa J. Moore},
  journal={Nature Climate Change},
  year={2019},
  volume={9},
  pages={306-312}
}
The global ocean has warmed substantially over the past century, with far-reaching implications for marine ecosystems1. Concurrent with long-term persistent warming, discrete periods of extreme regional ocean warming (marine heatwaves, MHWs) have increased in frequency2. Here we quantify trends and attributes of MHWs across all ocean basins and examine their biological impacts from species to ecosystems. Multiple regions in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans are particularly vulnerable to… 
Threat by marine heatwaves to adaptive large marine ecosystems in an eddy-resolving model
Marine heatwaves (MHWs), episodic periods of abnormally high sea surface temperature, severely affect marine ecosystems. Large marine ecosystems (LMEs) cover ~22% of the global ocean but account for
Marine Heatwave Drives Collapse of Kelp Forests in Western Australia
  • T. Wernberg
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  • 2021
Marine heatwaves (MHWs) are discrete, unusually warm-water events which can have devastating ecological impacts. In 2011, Western Australia experienced an extreme MHW, affecting >2000 km of coastline
Thermal displacement by marine heatwaves
TLDR
It is shown that thermal displacements during MHWs vary from tens to thousands of kilometres across the world’s oceans and do not correlate spatially with MHW intensity, and the need for marine resource management to account for MHW-driven spatial shifts is highlighted.
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Marine heatwaves (MHWs) are prolonged extreme oceanic warm water events. They can have devastating impacts on marine ecosystems — for example, causing mass coral bleaching and substantial declines in
Too hot to handle: Unprecedented seagrass death driven by marine heatwave in a World Heritage Area
TLDR
Detailed maps of seagrass coverage across the entire Shark Bay World Heritage Area before and after an extreme MHW are provided to provide a basis for identifying areas of meadow degradation, or stability and recovery; and potential areas of resilience.
Background nutrient concentration determines phytoplankton bloom response to marine heatwaves
TLDR
Analysis of the daily output of a near-global ocean physical-biogeochemical model simulation suggests increased occurrence of weaker blooms during marine heatwaves in coming decades, with implications for higher trophic levels and biogeochemical cycling of key elements.
Marine heatwaves and the collapse of marginal North Atlantic kelp forests
Extreme climatic events including marine heatwaves (MHWs) are becoming more frequent and severe in the Anthropocene. However, our understanding of how these events affect population dynamics of
Persistence of seaweed forests in the anthropocene will depend on warming and marine heatwave profiles
TLDR
The varying responses of these three co-occurring forest-forming seaweeds under different temperature scenarios suggests that the impact of ocean warming on near shore ecosystems may be complex and will depend on the specific thermal profile of rising water temperatures relative to the vulnerability of different species.
Unravelling seasonal trends in coastal marine heatwave metrics across global biogeographical realms
Marine heatwaves (MHWs) can cause dramatic changes to ecologically, culturally, and economically important coastal ecosystems. To date, MHW studies have focused on geographically isolated regions or
Genetic tropicalisation following a marine heatwave
TLDR
Using very rare “before” data, it is empirically demonstrated that an extreme marine heatwave caused a significant poleward shift in genetic clusters of kelp forests whereby alleles characteristic of cool water were replaced by those that predominated in warm water across 200 km of coastline.
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