Marine Cobalt Resources

  title={Marine Cobalt Resources},
  author={Frank. T. Manheim},
  pages={600 - 608}
Ferromanganese oxides in the open oceans are more enriched in cobalt than any other widely distributed sediments or rocks. Concentrations of cobalt exceed 1 percent in ferromanganese crusts on seamounts, ocean ridges, and other raised areas of the ocean. The cobaltrich crusts may be the slowest growing of any earth material, accumulating one molecular layer every 1 to 3 months. Attention has been drawn to crusts as potential resources because they contain cobalt, manganese, and platinum, three… 
Cobalt in ferromanganese crusts as a monitor of hydrothermal discharge on the Pacific sea floor
Ferromanganese oxide crusts, which accumulate on unsedimented surfaces in the open ocean1–6, derive most of their metal content from dissolved and particulate matter in ambient bottom water7,8, in
Trace elements in New Zealand ferromanganese nodules: implications for deep sea environments
Ferromanganese nodules are authigenic marine sediments that form over millions of years from the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides and Mn oxides from seawater (hydrogenetic-type growth) and sediment
Manganese: Predominant Role of Nodules and Crusts
The importance of manganese in the marine environment can be deduced from the fact that it is the tenth most abundant element in the earth’s crust (av. cone. 0.093%) and is available in two valency
Mineralogy and chemistry of ferromanganese crusts from the Atlantic Ocean
The mineral and chemical compositions of a set of crust samples collected from the North, Central and South Atlantic were examined by means of analytical electron microscopy and ICP-MS, chemical, and
Phosphatic Rocks and Manganese Crusts from Seamounts in the Eez of Kiribati and Tuvalu, Central Pacific Ocean
Phosphorite-manganese crusts were dredged from the flanks of seamounts of the Kiribati and Tuvalu EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) from water depths between 1450 and 2355 m. Samples from Kiribati
Assessment of the Mineral Resource Potential of Atlantic Ferromanganese Crusts Based on Their Growth History, Microstructure, and Texture
The decarbonisation of our energy supply is reliant on new technologies that are raw material intensive and will require a significant increase in the production of metals to sustain them.


Geochemistry of oceanic ferromanganese deposits
  • S. Calvert
  • Geology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1978
Deposits of mixed manganese and iron oxides, with high concentrations of minor metals, cover large areas of the deep-sea floor. They occur as nodules, over a very wide depth range, but most
Deposition of submarine crusts rich in manganese and iron
The chemical and mineralogical analyses of manganese-rich and iron-rich oxide crusts, of probable hydrothermal origin, from several locations on active spreading centers and seamounts in the Pacific
Formation of Cobalt (III) in the Amorphous FeOOH.nH2O Phase of Manganese Nodules
RECENT discussions1 on the nature of 3d transition-metal ions in sea water and in manganese nodules have rejected the possibility that oxidation of cobalt to Co (III) occurs in marine environments. A
Precious metals in ocean-ridge basalts; implications for basalts as source rocks for gold mineralization
The Au, Ag, and S contents of the glass rims of tholeiitic pillow basalts dredged between 25 degrees N and 30 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridges are up to 7, 5, and 2.5 times greater, respectively,
Manganese Nodules: Their Evolution
A relatively simple model of nodule evolution explains the distribution of manganese nodules between sediment column and sediment-water interface; the model appears to apply to other trace elements such as copper, nickel, and cobalt.