Marine Cobalt Resources

  title={Marine Cobalt Resources},
  author={F. Manheim},
  pages={600 - 608}
Ferromanganese oxides in the open oceans are more enriched in cobalt than any other widely distributed sediments or rocks. Concentrations of cobalt exceed 1 percent in ferromanganese crusts on seamounts, ocean ridges, and other raised areas of the ocean. The cobaltrich crusts may be the slowest growing of any earth material, accumulating one molecular layer every 1 to 3 months. Attention has been drawn to crusts as potential resources because they contain cobalt, manganese, and platinum, three… Expand
Cobalt in ferromanganese crusts as a monitor of hydrothermal discharge on the Pacific sea floor
Ferromanganese oxide crusts, which accumulate on unsedimented surfaces in the open ocean1–6, derive most of their metal content from dissolved and particulate matter in ambient bottom water7,8, inExpand
Enrichment of REEs in polymetallic nodules and crusts and its potential for exploitation
Polymetallic nodules and crusts are two of the most important mineral deposits in the ocean. They are rich in rare earth elements (REEs), iron, manganese, copper, cobalt, nickel, and other usefulExpand
Manganese: Predominant Role of Nodules and Crusts
The importance of manganese in the marine environment can be deduced from the fact that it is the tenth most abundant element in the earth’s crust (av. cone. 0.093%) and is available in two valencyExpand
Abstract Ferromanganese crusts cover most hard substrates on seafloor edifices in the central Pacific basin. Crust samples and their associated substrates from seven volcanic edifices of CretaceousExpand
Mineralogy and chemistry of ferromanganese crusts from the Atlantic Ocean
The mineral and chemical compositions of a set of crust samples collected from the North, Central and South Atlantic were examined by means of analytical electron microscopy and ICP-MS, chemical, andExpand
Phosphatic Rocks and Manganese Crusts from Seamounts in the Eez of Kiribati and Tuvalu, Central Pacific Ocean
Phosphorite-manganese crusts were dredged from the flanks of seamounts of the Kiribati and Tuvalu EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) from water depths between 1450 and 2355 m. Samples from KiribatiExpand
Geochemical features and genesis of continental cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts
Abstract Mass cobalt-rich ferromanganese microcrusts and nodules similar in morphology and chemical composition to cobalt-rich ferromanganese deep-ocean crusts were found in Cenozoic volcanic rocksExpand
Assessment of the Mineral Resource Potential of Atlantic Ferromanganese Crusts Based on Their Growth History, Microstructure, and Texture
The decarbonisation of our energy supply is reliant on new technologies that are raw material intensive and will require a significant increase in the production of metals to sustain them.Expand
Deep-sea ferromanganese deposits and their resource potential for India
Due to rapidly depleting land-based mineral resources, oceanic mineral deposits gain greater significance. Ferromanganese deposits on the seabed (nodules) and seamounts (crusts) known for theExpand
New index of ferromanganese crusts reflecting oceanic environmental oxidation
Ferromanganese crusts (hereinafter crusts) form in aerobic environment and the environmental oxida-tion degree is recorded by the redox sensitive element Co in the crusts. The ages of the layers fromExpand


Geochemistry of oceanic ferromanganese deposits
  • S. Calvert
  • Physics
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1978
Deposits of mixed manganese and iron oxides, with high concentrations of minor metals, cover large areas of the deep-sea floor. They occur as nodules, over a very wide depth range, but mostExpand
Geochemical variation in ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments from the Pacific Ocean
Abstract The major and minor element compositions of a suite of abyssal sea-floor ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments from the eastern central Pacific have been used to examineExpand
Deposition of submarine crusts rich in manganese and iron
The chemical and mineralogical analyses of manganese-rich and iron-rich oxide crusts, of probable hydrothermal origin, from several locations on active spreading centers and seamounts in the PacificExpand
The uptake of cobalt into ferromanganese nodules, soils, and synthetic manganese (IV) oxides
Strong enrichments of cobalt occur in marine manganese nodules, soils, wads, and natural and synthetic minerals such as hollandite, cryptomelane, psilomelane, lithiophorite, birnessite, and δ-MnO2.Expand
Formation of Cobalt (III) in the Amorphous FeOOH.nH2O Phase of Manganese Nodules
RECENT discussions1 on the nature of 3d transition-metal ions in sea water and in manganese nodules have rejected the possibility that oxidation of cobalt to Co (III) occurs in marine environments. AExpand
Ferromanganese oxide deposits from the Central Pacific Ocean, I. Encrustations from the Line Islands Archipelago
Abstract Chemical and mineralogical analyses of a well-controlled suite of ferromanganese encrustations from the Line Islands Archipelago (Central Pacific) suggest that they represent purelyExpand
Precious metals in ocean-ridge basalts; implications for basalts as source rocks for gold mineralization
The Au, Ag, and S contents of the glass rims of tholeiitic pillow basalts dredged between 25 degrees N and 30 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridges are up to 7, 5, and 2.5 times greater, respectively,Expand
Manganese Nodules: Their Evolution
A relatively simple model of nodule evolution explains the distribution of manganese nodules between sediment column and sediment-water interface; the model appears to apply to other trace elements such as copper, nickel, and cobalt. Expand
Authigenic transition elements in Pacific pelagic clays
Abstract The concentrations of Sc, Ti, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, La, Th and U have been measured in several Pacific pelagic clays having widely different accumulation rates, 0.4–9.0 mm/10 3 yr. TheExpand
Ferromanganese nodules from MANOP Sites H, S, and R—Control of mineralogical and chemical composition by multiple accretionary processes
Abstract The chemical composition of ferromanganese nodules from the three nodule-bearing MANOP sites in the Pacific can be accounted for in a qualitative way by variable contributions of distinctExpand