Marijuana Odor Perception: Studies Modeled from Probable Cause Cases

  title={Marijuana Odor Perception: Studies Modeled from Probable Cause Cases},
  author={Richard L. Doty and Thomas J Wudarski and David A. Marshall and Lloyd Hastings},
  journal={Law and Human Behavior},
The 4th Amendment of the United States Constitution protects American citizens against unreasonable search and seizure without probable cause. Although law enforcement officials routinely rely solely on the sense of smell to justify probable cause when entering vehicles and dwellings to search for illicit drugs, the accuracy of their perception in this regard has rarely been questioned and, to our knowledge, never tested. In this paper, we present data from two empirical studies based upon… 
Human olfactory detection of packaged cannabis.
  • A. Gilbert, J. DiVerdi
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Science & justice : journal of the Forensic Science Society
  • 2020
Do I smell pot? A trial of an alternative paradigm of olfactory cue-reactance to marijuana
Marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug among college students, remains the most cited reason for entering treatment for substance abuse and dependency (Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M.,
Characterizing the Smell of Marijuana by Odor Impact of Volatile Compounds: An Application of Simultaneous Chemical and Sensory Analysis
This study showed the use of solid-phase microextraction with multidimensional gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and simultaneous human olfaction to characterize the total aroma of marijuana, suggesting that more attention should be focused on highly odorous compounds typically present in low concentrations.
Review of Research Development on Environmental Odour in the Last Decade
The latest research development of environmental odour was reviewed in terms of the source and emission, the generated annoyance and health impact, detection and measurement systems, the most
Investigating the aroma of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin for forensic applications using simultaneous multidimensional gas chromatography - mass spectrometry - olfactometry
A comparison of the smell of marijuana volatiles through packaging and SPME for forensic applications and legal cases based on probable cause for search and seizure is presented.


Smell and taste function in the visually impaired
The data imply that blindness, per se, has little influence on chemosensory function and add further support to the notion that specialized training enhances performance on a number of chemosENSory tasks.
Smell identification ability: changes with age.
Smell identification ability was measured in 1955 persons ranging in age from 5 to 99 years. On the average, women outperformed men at all ages, and nonsmokers outperformed smokers. Peak performance
An examination of relationships between the pleasantness, intensity, and concentration of 10 odorous stimuli
Relationships between physical concentration, perceived pleasantness, and perceived intensity were established by the method of magnitude estimation for 10 diverse chemical stimuli. Estimates of
Cannabinoid content of individual plant organs from different geographical strains of Cannabis sativa L.
An attempt to compare cannabinoid profiles of specific plant organs from several strains and clones of Cannabis to determine whether cannabinoid variability exists in different organs and during different phases of organ development and whether variability, if present, influences the phenotypic classification of the plant.
Magnitude estimation and sensory matching
  • L. Marks
  • Physics
    Perception & psychophysics
  • 1988
The results imply that judgments of perceived intensity of qualitatively different stimuli do not always obey the principle that equal sensations yield equal response, and that experiments using scaling methods to generate matches should compare stimuli whose levels of subjective magnitude are roughly the same.
The volatile oil composition of fresh and air-dried buds of Cannabis sativa.
Drying of the plant material had no effect on the qualitative composition of the oil and did not affect the ability of individuals familiar with marijuana smell to recognize the odor.
United States of America v . Deborah Ellis , 15 F . Supp . 2 d 1025 ( 1998 ) . United States v . Harris , 31 F . 3 d 153 , 156 ( 4 th Cir . 1994 ) . United States of America v . Keven C . Reilly
  • 1994
An examination of relationships between the pleasantness, intensity, and concentration
  • 1975