Maps of Subsurface Hydrogen from the High Energy Neutron Detector, Mars Odyssey

@article{Mitrofanov2002MapsOS,
  title={Maps of Subsurface Hydrogen from the High Energy Neutron Detector, Mars Odyssey},
  author={Igor G. Mitrofanov and Dmitrij S. Anfimov and Alexander S. Kozyrev and M. L. Litvak and Anton Sanin and V. I. Tret’yakov and A Krylov and Valery N. Shvetsov and William V. Boynton and C. Shinohara and David K. Hamara and R. Stephen Saunders},
  journal={Science},
  year={2002},
  volume={297},
  pages={78 - 81}
}
After 55 days of mapping by the High Energy Neutron Detector onboard Mars Odyssey, we found deficits of high-energy neutrons in the southern highlands and northern lowlands of Mars. These deficits indicate that hydrogen is concentrated in the subsurface. Modeling suggests that water ice–rich layers that are tens of centimeters in thickness provide one possible fit to the data. 

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Global distributions of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutron fluxes have been mapped during late southern summer/northern winter using the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer, and portions of the low to middle latitudes indicate subsurface deposits of chemically and/ or physically bound H2O and/or OH.

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Global Distribution of Neutrons from Mars: Results from Mars Odyssey

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Global distributions of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutron fluxes have been mapped during late southern summer/northern winter using the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer, and portions of the low to middle latitudes indicate subsurface deposits of chemically and/ or physically bound H2O and/or OH.

Distribution of Hydrogen in the Near Surface of Mars: Evidence for Subsurface Ice Deposits

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The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the Mars Odyssey has identified two regions near the poles that are enriched in hydrogen, and it is suggested that the host of the hydrogen in the subsurface layer is ice, which constitutes 35 ± 15% of the layer by weight.

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