Mapping the Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Influenza Virus

@article{Smith2004MappingTA,
  title={Mapping the Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Influenza Virus},
  author={Derek J. Smith and Alan S. Lapedes and Jan C. de Jong and Theo M. Bestebroer and Guus F. Rimmelzwaan and Albert D M E Osterhaus and Ron A. M. Fouchier},
  journal={Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={305},
  pages={371 - 376}
}
The antigenic evolution of influenza A (H3N2) virus was quantified and visualized from its introduction into humans in 1968 to 2003. Although there was remarkable correspondence between antigenic and genetic evolution, significant differences were observed: Antigenic evolution was more punctuated than genetic evolution, and genetic change sometimes had a disproportionately large antigenic effect. The method readily allows monitoring of antigenic differences among vaccine and circulating strains… 

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