Mapping the Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Influenza Virus

  title={Mapping the Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Influenza Virus},
  author={Derek J. Smith and Alan S. Lapedes and Jan C. de Jong and Theo M. Bestebroer and Guus F. Rimmelzwaan and Albert D M E Osterhaus and Ron A. M. Fouchier},
  pages={371 - 376}
The antigenic evolution of influenza A (H3N2) virus was quantified and visualized from its introduction into humans in 1968 to 2003. Although there was remarkable correspondence between antigenic and genetic evolution, significant differences were observed: Antigenic evolution was more punctuated than genetic evolution, and genetic change sometimes had a disproportionately large antigenic effect. The method readily allows monitoring of antigenic differences among vaccine and circulating strains… 

The evolution of epidemic influenza

It is argued that a complete understanding of the evolutionary biology of this important human pathogen will require a genomic view of genetic diversity, including the acquisition of polymorphism data from within individual hosts and from geographical regions, particularly the tropics, which have been poorly surveyed to date.

The Molecular Basis for Antigenic Drift of Human A/H2N2 Influenza Viruses

Two amino acid substitutions, T128D and N139K, located in the head domain of the H2 hemagglutinin (HA) molecule, were identified as important determinants of antigenic change during A/H2N2 virus evolution.

Inference of Genotype–Phenotype Relationships in the Antigenic Evolution of Human Influenza A (H3N2) Viruses

This work has developed a method for inferring ‘antigenic trees’ for the major viral surface protein hemagglutinin and identified both known and novel sites, and amino acid changes with antigenic impact in the evolution of influenza A (H3N2) viruses from 1968 to 2003.

The Role of Genomics in Tracking the Evolution of Influenza A Virus

Future in-depth studies of the influenza reservoir, along with large-scale data mining of genomic resources and the integration of epidemiological, genomic, and antigenic data, should enhance the understanding of antigenic drift and improve the detection and control of antigenically novel emerging strains.

Predictability of antigenic evolution for H3N2 human influenza A virus.

A theoretical method was introduced to predict the antigenic evolution of H3N2 human influenza A virus by evaluating de novo mutations through estimating the antigenIC distance and there appeared to be an overall tendency that the amino acid sites with larger potential net effect on antigenicity were more likely to evolve.

Co-evolution positions and rules for antigenic variants of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses

A method for identifying antigenic critical amino acid positions, rules, and co-mutated positions for antigenic variants of influenza viruses is developed and is potential useful for studying influenza virus evolution and vaccine development.

Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Equine Influenza A (H3N8) Virus from 1968 to 2007

It is determined that a single amino acid substitution was likely responsible for the antigenic differences among clusters, and evidence of antigenic drift away from the vaccine strain over time is shown.

Antigenic and Genetic Evolution of Swine Influenza A (H3N2) Viruses in Europe

It is shown that Italian swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses displayed antigenic and genetic changes similar to those observed in Northern European viruses in the same period, and it is suggested that humoral immunity in the population plays a smaller role in the evolutionary selection processes of swine H3n2 viruses than in human H3N 2 viruses.

The Ecology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses.

The origins of influenza viruses within the orthomyxoviruses are explored, showing how the authors' perception of the evolutionary history of these viruses has been transformed with metagenomic sequencing and the diversity of virus subtypes in different species and the processes by which these viruses have emerged in new hosts are outlined.

Canalization of the evolutionary trajectory of the human influenza virus

It is found that evolution away from existing human immunity results in rapid population turnover in the influenza virus and that this population turnover occurs primarily along a single antigenic axis.



Antigenic and genetic evolution of equine H3N8 influenza A viruses.

It was noted that antigenic and genetic variants of equine H3N8 viruses cocirculate, and in particular that variants currently circulating in Europe and the USA are distinguishable from one another both in terms of antigenic reactivity and genetic structure of the haemagglutinin (HA) molecule.

The evolution of human influenza viruses.

The evolution of influenza viruses results in (i) recurrent annual epidemics of disease that are caused by progressive antigenic drift of influenza A and B viruses due to the mutability of the RNA

Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution

By matching model output to phylogenetic patterns seen in sequence data collected through global surveillance, it is found that short-lived strain-transcending immunity is essential to restrict viral diversity in the host population and thus to explain key aspects of drift and shift dynamics.

Predicting the evolution of human influenza A.

Monitoring new H3 isolates for additional changes in positively selected codons might help identify the most fit extant viral strains that arise during antigenic drift.

Positive selection on the H3 hemagglutinin gene of human influenza virus A.

The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza viruses encodes the major surface antigen against which neutralizing antibodies are produced during infection or vaccination. We examined temporal variation

The total influenza vaccine failure of 1947 revisited: Major intrasubtypic antigenic change can explain failure of vaccine in a post-World War II epidemic

Although the 1947 epidemic lacked the usual hallmarks of pandemic disease, it warns of the possibility that extreme intrasubtypic antigenic variation (if coupled with an increase in disease severity) could producePandemic disease without the introduction of animal virus antigens.

Unifying the Epidemiological and Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathogens

A phylodynamic framework for the dissection of dynamic forces that determine the diversity of epidemiological and phylogenetic patterns observed in RNA viruses of vertebrates is introduced.

Mapping of antigenic changes in the haemagglutinin of Hong Kong influenza (H3N2) strains using a large panel of monoclonal antibodies.

A panel of 125 monoclonal antibodies (IgG) was raised against the haemagglutinin of an early representative of the Hong Kong (H3N2) subtype of influenza. They were classified into groups based on

Antigenic diversity and similarities detected in avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease virus) isolates using monoclonal antibodies.

Cluster analysis of the mAb binding patterns did not produce concise, discrete groupings, but did emphasise some relationships between virus properties and antigenicity, especially for viruses causing discrete epizootics.

Population dynamics of rapid fixation in cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape mutants of influenza A

A model of recently observed dramatic invasions of cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape mutants in human influenza A finds that the dynamics within a single season of influenza do not provide a realistic description, but a model of the full annual dynamics can offer a possible explanation.