Mapping Unobserved Item-Respondent Interactions: A Latent Space Item Response Model with Interaction Map.

@article{Jeon2020MappingUI,
  title={Mapping Unobserved Item-Respondent Interactions: A Latent Space Item Response Model with Interaction Map.},
  author={Minjeong Jeon and Ick Hoon Jin and Michael Schweinberger and Samuel Baugh},
  journal={Psychometrika},
  year={2020}
}
Classic item response models assume that all items with the same difficulty have the same response probability among all respondents with the same ability. These assumptions, however, may very well be violated in practice, and it is not straightforward to assess whether these assumptions are violated, because neither the abilities of respondents nor the difficulties of items are observed. An example is an educational assessment where unobserved heterogeneity is present, arising from unobserved… 

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