Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), activating protein of the lectin pathway of the complement system, is an important component of the non-specific immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms, both in the coding and promoter regions, lead to low or deficient serum MBL levels. Low serum MBL levels were shown to be associated with serious infectious complications, mainly in patients in whom other non-specific immune system barriers were disturbed (granulocytopenia, cystic fibrosis). We have analysed two promoter (-550 and -221) and three exon (codons 52, 54 and 57) MBL2 polymorphisms in a total of 94 patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) from two immunodeficiency centres. Low-producing genotypes were associated with the presence of bronchiectasis (P = 0.009), lung fibrosis (P = 0.037) and also with respiratory insufficiency (P = 0.029). We could not demonstrate any association of MBL deficiency with age at onset of clinical symptoms, age at diagnosis, the number of pneumonias before diagnosis or serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA and IgM levels before initiation of Ig treatment. No association with emphysema development was observed, such as with lung function test abnormalities. No effect of MBL2 genotypes on the presence of diarrhoea, granuloma formation, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, frequency of respiratory tract infection or the number of antibiotic courses of the patients was observed. Our study suggests that low MBL-producing genotypes predispose to bronchiectasis formation, and also fibrosis and respiratory insufficiency development, but have no effect on other complications in CVID patients.