Manifestations, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Strongyloides stercoralis Infection

@article{SegarraNewnham2007ManifestationsDA,
  title={Manifestations, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Strongyloides stercoralis Infection},
  author={Marisel Segarra-Newnham},
  journal={Annals of Pharmacotherapy},
  year={2007},
  volume={41},
  pages={1992 - 2001}
}
Objective: To summarize current literature on the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Data Sources: A search was conducted of PubMed (1970–August 2007). Search terms included Strongyloides stercoralis, hyperinfection, prevention, and treatment. Reviews, studies, and recent case reports were included. Additional references were obtained from article bibliographies. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All studies or review articles published in… 
The Laboratory Diagnosis and Follow Up of Strongyloidiasis: A Systematic Review
TLDR
Sensitivity of microscopic-based techniques is not good enough, particularly in chronic infections and techniques such as Baermann or agar plate culture are cumbersome and time-consuming and several specimens should be collected on different days to improve the detection rate.
An Unusual Presentation of Duodenal Strongyloides stercoralis Enteritis Ulcerative Colitis Patient: A Case Report
TLDR
It is noteworthy to mention that screening for Strongyloides infection before the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy should be considered, particularly in endemic areas.
Management of Strongyloides stercoralis: a puzzling parasite.
TLDR
Screening, both stool examination and serology, before patients have immunosuppressive treatment is needed to prevent the severe form of strongyloidiasis.
Advances in the Diagnosis of Human Strongyloidiasis
TLDR
The state of the art of the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is discussed including parasitologic methods that are commonly used despite having low sensitivity; serology, which has demonstrated better sensitivity; and molecular biology methods, which have virtually 100 % specificity.
Strongyloidiasis: a diagnosis more common than we think
TLDR
Although a diagnostic approach tends to start with stool collections, consideration of upper endoscopy with biopsy in symptomatic patients is advisable, and ascertaining HIV and human T-lymphotropic virus-1 status should be part of the work-up.
Strongyloides duodenitis: case report and review of literature.
TLDR
A case of an HIV-infected Hispanic woman presenting with dyspepsia, emesis, abdominal pain, and diarrhea diagnosed with S stercoralis on an esophagogastroduodenoscopy biopsy of the duodenum is reported, likely prevented further morbidity and probably saved her life.
Determinants of reactivation of inapparent Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients hospitalized for unrelated admitting diagnosis
TLDR
Analysis of hemogram data suggests the low sensitivity of hypereosinophilia to be a marker for this helminthiasis, and immunosuppressive therapy, viral infection-associated immunodeficiency, alcoholism, and diabetes mellitus as risk factors for reactivation of chronic inapparent strongyloidiasis.
Clinico-epidemiological spectrum of strongyloidiasis in India: Review of 166 cases
TLDR
Better awareness and early clinical suspicion of the disease with stool microscopy and adequate therapy are necessary to improve the outcome and calls for a close coordination from family physicians and microbiologists.
Strongyloides stercoralis in solid organ transplantation: early diagnosis gets the worm
TLDR
The pathology, immunology, diagnosis, and treatment of strongyloides infection in the immunosuppressed SOT population is reviewed, with focused discussion on donor-derived transmission and recipient risk in solid organ transplantation.
Cutaneous strongyloidiasis: direct finding of worms on skin potassium hydroxide examination
TLDR
The patient is a 19-year-old Argentine woman who presented a pruriginous lesion on her right buttock, which had started 2 months earlier, and has been travelling throughout South America for the past year, and had visited Cuba, Brazil and Uruguay.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 135 REFERENCES
Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection.
  • A. Siddiqui, S. Berk
  • Medicine
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2001
TLDR
The clinical manifestations of strongyloidiasis are described as well as various diagnostic tests and treatment strategies, and several immunodiagnostic assays have been found ineffective in detecting disseminated infections and show extensive cross-reactivity with hookworms, filariae, and schistosomes.
Treatment strategies in controlling strongyloidiasis
TLDR
Treating patients infected with S. stercoralis with ivermectin, which has been introduced for the treatment of human onchocerciasis, has been reported to be effective against strongyloidiasis, without serious side effects.
Serology and eosinophil count in the diagnosis and management of strongyloidiasis in a non-endemic area.
TLDR
Serologic and eosinophil counts decreased after therapy, suggesting that they may be useful markers of treatment success, and the sensitivity of the CDC Strongyloides EIA was determined.
Intestinal strongyloidiasis: recognition, management, and determinants of outcome.
TLDR
This review summarizes what is understood about infection by S. stercoralis and focus will be on the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical presentation patterns in the immunocompetent and Immunocompromised human hosts, and recommended treatment regimens.
Fatal Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a young woman with lupus glomerulonephritis.
TLDR
This case highlights the importance of screening for S. stercoralis in patients starting immunosuppressive therapy, especially if they are from endemic areas, and the absence of eosinophilia and non-specific signs of infection.
Syndrome of hyperinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis.
TLDR
If intestinal infection with S. stercoralis is detected and treated before immunosuppressive therapy is initiated and if a high index of suspicion for the hyperinfection syndrome is maintained while immunosuficient therapy is given, the mortality from this disease should decrease.
Hyperinfection syndrome in strongyloidiasis: report of two cases.
TLDR
The low suspicion index for strongyloidiasis resulted in delaying the etiologic diagnosis in one patient and in failing to diagnose the disease in the other; the morphologic features of the parasite in the two cases are presented with emphasis on the difficulties of recognizing the larvae in the intestinal biopsy.
Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection in a Patient With AIDS
  • A. Bava, A. Troncoso
  • Medicine
    Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care
  • 2009
TLDR
In patients with the hyperinfection syndrome and massive Strongyloides infection, adult respiratory distress syndrome with pulmonary insufficiency that requires intubation and mechanical ventilation may also develop.
Hyperinfective Strongyloidiasis in the Medical Ward: Review of 27 Cases in 5 Years
TLDR
Early diagnosis and treatment with thiabendazole may reduce mortality in hyperinfective strongyloidiasis.
Strongyloides hyper-infection: a case for awareness
TLDR
The characteristics and intensive-care management of this case, including the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and high-dose ivermectin, are described, appears to represent the first reported case of S. stercoralis hyper-infection with suspected myocarditis.
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