Manganese interferes with calcium, perturbs ERK signaling, and produces embryos with no skeleton.

@article{Pinsino2011ManganeseIW,
  title={Manganese interferes with calcium, perturbs ERK signaling, and produces embryos with no skeleton.},
  author={Annalisa Pinsino and Maria Carmela Roccheri and Caterina Costa and Valeria Matranga},
  journal={Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology},
  year={2011},
  volume={123 1},
  pages={217-30}
}
Manganese (Mn) has been associated with embryo toxicity as it impairs differentiation of neural and skeletogenic cells in vertebrates. Nevertheless, information on the mechanisms operating at the cellular level remains scant. We took advantage of an amenable embryonic model to investigate the effects of Mn in biomineral formation. Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos were exposed to Mn from fertilization, harvested at different developmental stages, and analyzed for their content in… CONTINUE READING
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