BACKGROUND Surveillance has been recommended more frequently as a postorchiectomy management option for men with early stage nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) of the testicle. It is unknown how contemporary treatment patterns reflect these recommendations. METHODS Data from the National Cancer Database were extracted on all men who were diagnosed with clinical stage (CS) IA or CSIB NSGCT between 2004 and 2013. Temporal trends in the use of chemotherapy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), and surveillance were measured; and multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association of patient and clinical covariates with use of surveillance. RESULTS Of the 4080 men with CSIA NSGCT, 70%, 17%, and 13% received surveillance, RPLND, and chemotherapy, respectively. Surveillance increased in this group from 65% (2004-2005) to 74% (2012-2013: adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.98; P = .004). Of the 2580 men who had CSIB NSGCT, 46%, 20%, and 34% received surveillance, RPLND, and chemotherapy, respectively. In this group, 48% of men underwent surveillance in the years 2004 to 2005 and 2012 to 2013 (adjusted P = .8). Upon multivariable analyses, higher income and the oldest age quartile were associated with increased odds of surveillance among men with CSIA NSGCT (both P < .050). Hispanic men with CSIB NSGCT were more likely to receive surveillance compared with non-Hispanic white men (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS Nearly 75% of men with CSIA NSGCT and nearly 50% of men with CSIB NSGCT received surveillance in 2012 and 2013. The likelihood of receiving surveillance increased from 2004 through 2013 for men with CSIA NSGCT but was unchanged for men with CSIB. Cancer 2017;123:245-252. © 2016 American Cancer Society.