Management of refractory congestive heart failure.

  title={Management of refractory congestive heart failure.},
  author={Robert J. Cody},
  journal={The American journal of cardiology},
  volume={69 18},
  pages={141G-147G; disc. 147G-149G}
Despite recent advances in the treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF), many patients continue to present with symptoms refractory to digoxin, diuretic, and vasodilatory therapy. Since it is unlikely that this population will decrease in the near future, practical approaches to management of refractory CHF are reviewed. Refractory CHF here is defined as New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III-IV heart failure, despite maximal drug therapy. Before such a diagnosis is made, the… CONTINUE READING

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