Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease beyond the lungs.

  title={Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease beyond the lungs.},
  author={Lowie E G W Vanfleteren and Martijn A. Spruit and Emiel F. M. Wouters and Frits M E Franssen},
  journal={The Lancet. Respiratory medicine},
  volume={4 11},
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term that covers many clinical subtypes with clearly different pulmonary and extra-pulmonary characteristics, but with persistent airflow limitation in common. This insight has led to the development of a more personalised approach in bronchodilator therapy, prevention of exacerbations, and advanced treatments (such as non-invasive ventilation and lung volume reduction techniques). However, systemic manifestations and comorbidities of… CONTINUE READING
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