Management of Parapneumonic Effusion and Empyema : Medical Thoracoscopy and Surgical Approach

  • Published 2011


Parapneumonic effusions or empyemas are frequently seen in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. The condition is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Since Gram stains and bacterial cultures are usually negative, treatment focuses on empiric antibiotic treatment and chest tube drainage. The role of intrapleural fibrinolytics is… (More)

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