Malignant Rheumatic Heart Disease Presenting as Quadrivalvular Stenosis


Rheumatic disease may involve the pulmonary valve, but is exceedingly rare. Simultaneous involvement of all four valves is more likely to be the result of combination of causes, such as congenital, rheumatic, infective or degenerative disease. A unitary cause for quadrivalvular involvement would be either rheumatic or myxomatous degeneration. A 16-year-old… (More)
DOI: 10.14740/cr437w

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