Male sterility, protogyny, and pollen-pistil interference in Plantago maritima (Plantaginaceae), a wind-pollinated, self-incompatible perennial.

Evolution and maintenance of male sterility in seed plants can be explained by the maternal inheritance of mitochondria, which encode the trait, and by adaptive functions that enhance female fecundity in male-sterile compared to hermaphrodite individuals. Protogyny and male sterility can independently decrease the negative effect of pollen-pistil… CONTINUE READING