Male circumcision: Africa and beyond?

  title={Male circumcision: Africa and beyond?},
  author={Howard H. Kim and Philip S Li and Marc Goldstein},
  journal={Current Opinion in Urology},
Purpose of review Male circumcision has become an important component of HIV prevention strategies in Africa. Results of recent trials have renewed interest in this ancient procedure and its potential application in the reduction of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). With renewed interest comes controversy, which has always been a close companion to circumcision. Recent findings Following the three randomized trials in Africa demonstrating the protective effects of male circumcision on HIV… 
Scaling Safe Circumcisions in Communities
This chapter would draw upon current guidelines and literature, review existing programmes that have attempted to establish community-based safe circumcision initiatives and discuss strategies for sustainable scale-up to meet this huge public health need.
Health workers, health facilities and penile cutting in papua new guinea: implications for male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy.
An audit of PNG health facilities to assess their suitability for implementing a national MC program, and to identify issues that may arise in any future roll-out, demonstrated the difficulties with procurement and availability of equipment for general services around PNG, shortage of staff and capacity, and limitations of available clinical space.
Attitudes, Beliefs and Predictors of Male Circumcision Promotion among Medical University Students in a Traditionally Non-Circumcising Region
Poor knowledge of its benefits and a low willingness to promote the procedure—strongly dependent on personal beliefs—suggest that medical students may need additional training to help them to discuss MC more openly with adult men at risk for HIV infection.
Circumcision-Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
The procedure is most often an elective surgery performed on neonates and children for religious and cultural reasons, and in other cases it may be indicated for both treatment and preventative reasons.
The Penile Microbiota in Uncircumcised and Circumcised Men: Relationships With HIV and Human Papillomavirus Infections and Cervicovaginal Microbiota
The findings from the penile microbiota studies coupled with observational studies on the effect of male circumcision for reduction of STI/HIV infection risk suggest that specific penile anaerobic bacteria such as Prevotella spp.
Sociocultural and individual determinants for motivation of sexual and reproductive health workers in Papua New Guinea and their implications for male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy
The potential contribution to the success of a MC programme that HWs may have means that taking into account the differing needs of communities as well as the motivational influences on HWs that exist within the sociocultural environment is important.
Male Circumcision
Implementation of an infant male circumcision programme, Pakistan
Standardized training protocols and close monitoring enabled nonphysician health providers to perform safe circumcisions on infants aged three months or younger in Pakistan.
This article analyses the significance of South Afr ica’s human rights narrative towards bettering the practice of Traditional Male Circumci sion (TMC). It is considerate of the fact that


Male circumcision for HIV prevention: a prospective study of complications in clinical and traditional settings in Bungoma, Kenya.
Extensive training and resources will be necessary in sub-Saharan Africa before male circumcision can be aggressively promoted for HIV prevention.
Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis.
In addition to decreasing the incidence of HIV infection, male circumcision significantly reduced the incidenceof HSV-2 infection and the prevalence of HPV infection, findings that underscore the potential public health benefits of the procedure.
Risk Compensation Is Not Associated with Male Circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: A Multi-Faceted Assessment of Men Enrolled in a Randomized Controlled Trial
Continuing monitoring and evaluation of risk compensation associated with circumcision is needed as evidence supporting its' efficacy is disseminated and MC is widely promoted for HIV prevention.
Randomized, Controlled Intervention Trial of Male Circumcision for Reduction of HIV Infection Risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial
Male circumcision provides a degree of protection against acquiring HIV infection, equivalent to what a vaccine of high efficacy would have achieved in sub-Saharan Africa.
Print media reporting of male circumcision for preventing HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa.
A communication strategy to sequence important themes as male circumcision programmes are scaled up would allow strategic coverage of accurate messages over time and suggest that public health authorities must help the media understand important issues.
Circumcision of HIV-infected men: effects on high-risk human papillomavirus infections in a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda.
Circumcision of HIV-positive men reduced the prevalence and incidence of multiple HR-HPV infections and did not affect the acquisition of single HR- HPV infections.
Male circumcision decreases acquisition and increases clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-negative men: a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda.
Male circumcision reduces the incidence of multiple HR- HPV infections and increases clearance of HR-HPV infections in HIV-uninfected men.
Reduced clearance of penile human papillomavirus infection in uncircumcised men.
Circumcision may protect against HPV-associated disease by enhancing the resolution of infection and clearance of HPV infection in uncircumcised men.
The number of procedures required to achieve optimal competency with male circumcision: findings from a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda
To assess the number of procedures required to achieve optimal competency in Rakai, Uganda, and thus facilitate the development of guidelines for training providers, as male circumcision reduces the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in men and is recommended for HIV prevention.