Male care and mating effort among Hadza foragers

  title={Male care and mating effort among Hadza foragers},
  author={Frank W. Marlowe},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  • F. Marlowe
  • Published 1999
  • Biology
  • Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Abstract Paternal care figures prominently in many scenarios of human evolution. Recently, however, such scenarios have been challenged on two scores. First, the level of male contribution may be insignificant. Second, male care may be provided as a form of mating effort, rather than parenting effort. In theory, since men can enhance their Darwinian fitness both by providing care to their own offspring if this raises offspring fitness and by pursuing additional mates if this leads to additional… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Is male care compromised by additional mating opportunity
It is concluded that, in spite of the paucity of comprehensive studies, this tradeoff has a potentially important and often overlooked influence on parental behaviour in a range of taxa. Expand
Caring for infants is associated with increased reproductive success for male mountain gorillas
It is demonstrated that, independent of multiple controls for rank, age, and siring opportunities, male gorillas who affiliated more with all infants, not only their own, sired more offspring than males who affiliated less with young. Expand
Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists
Comparisons between two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement confirmed the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men, and added further support to the ‘challenge hypothesis’. Expand
Paternity cues and mating opportunities: what makes fathers good?
Human males provide facultative paternal investment to their offspring; that is, the male care is not necessary for the survival of his offspring. It is expected that the degree of male investmentExpand
The evolution of human mating: Trade-offs and strategic pluralism
During human evolutionary history, there were “trade-offs” between expending time and energy on child-rearing and mating, so both men and women evolved conditional mating strategies guided by cuesExpand
Allomaternal care, brains and fertility in mammals: who cares matters
Using a sample of 478 mammals, it is shown that paternal care, which is both reliable and stable, shows correlated evolution with brain size, whereas alloparental Care, which fluctuates with varying availability of helpers, is correlated with higher fertility. Expand
Parental and Mating Effort: Is There Necessarily a Trade‐Off?
The empirical evidence for trade-offs between mating and parental effort in males and females is examined and the importance of considering individual variation is highlighted, and how preferences in one sex may influence the existence and the interpretation of apparent trade-off in the other sex is explored. Expand
Paternal investment and the human mating system
  • F. Marlowe
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Behavioural Processes
  • 2000
It is concluded paternal investment is important but so too is mate-guarding, and a model of the mating system is proposed incorporating both factors. Expand
The Ape That Thought It Was a Peacock: Does Evolutionary Psychology Exaggerate Human Sex Differences?
This article looks at the evolution of sex differences in sexuality in human beings and asks whether evolutionary psychology sometimes exaggerates these differences. According to a commonExpand
Direct Male Care and Hominin Evolution: Why Male–Child Interaction Is More Than a Nice Social Idea
An evolutionary model of direct male care is proposed, demonstrating that males could have helped reduce the energetic burden of caregiving placed on mothers by carrying young, thereby hastening the advent of shortened interbirth intervals that played a formative role in the success of Homo genus. Expand


Male care in primates: does it ever reflect paternity?
Female mammals have internal fertilization, long gestation, and lactation; male mammals rarely assist their mates in caring for their young; direct infant care by males occurs in fewer than 5 percent of all mammalian species. Expand
The Evolution of Male Parental Investment in Mammals
A variety of approaches have been used to understand the evolution of male parental care. General frameworks are provided by Trivers’ theory of sexual selection (1972), the theory of life historyExpand
Courtship Feeding in Katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae): Investment in Offspring or in Obtaining Fertilizations?
The hypothesis that the function of "excess" maledonated nutrition is mating effort that protects the ejaculate is rejected and courtship feeding in R. verticalis may represent parental effort whereby males invest in their own zygotes. Expand
Sex and parenting: the effects of sexual conflict and parentage on parental strategies.
Recent work on conflicts between the sexes over care and the consequences of variable paternity on paternal care has generated fascinating new ideas about the evolutionary forces acting on parenting. Expand
Paternal effect on offspring survivorship among Ache and Hiwi hunter-gatherers: implications for modeling pair-bond stability.
The Northern Ache of Paraguay with approximately 600 individuals were settled as agricultural farmers in several reservations between 1971 and 1978. The Hiwi are hunter-gatherers of SouthwesternExpand
Hunting income patterns among the Hadza: big game, common goods, foraging goals and the evolution of the human diet.
Experimental data is reported showing that hunters would reduce their mean rates if they included small animals in the array they target, and finding that an exclusive focus on large game with extensive sharing is not the optimal strategy for hunters concerned with maximizing their own chances of eating meat. Expand
Food Sharing Among Ache Foragers: Tests of Explanatory Hypotheses [and Comments and Reply]
This paper aims to describe and explain aspects of food sharing among Ache hunter-gatherers of eastern Paraguay. Food sharing has been widely held to be a fundamental feature of the hunting andExpand
Parental investment and sexual selection
Charles Darwin's (1871) treatnent of the topic of sexual selection was sometinrcs confused because he lackcd a gcneral framework within which to relate the variables he perceived to bc important:Expand
Demography of the Hadza, an increasing and high density population of Savanna foragers.
The results of a census are described, and the estimation of age structure, survivorship, mean age of women at childbearing, number of live children, total population size and density, and rate of change since 1967 are described. Expand
Why Hunter-Gatherers Work: An Ancient Version of the Problem of Public Goods [and Comments and Reply]
People who hunt and gather for a living share some resources more widely than others. A favored hypothesis to explain the differential sharing is that giving up portions of large, unpredictableExpand