We &nd ourselves in a paradoxical situation. Early detection of prostate cancer has become di'cult, if not impossible, due to new guidelines against routine PSA screening. Why did the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, a volunteer panel of medical professionals, rule against wide use of a simple and e(ective screening tool? First, men with suspicious or rising test results are sent for an unpleasant diagnostic procedure (TRUS biopsy) that has been proven to miss up to 30% of cancers. %ose with negative biopsies later have repeat biopsies, while expense (and anxiety) mount up. Second, this protocol &nds too many less aggressive cancers—and the cure may be worse than the disease.