Malaria: an update on current chemotherapy

  title={Malaria: an update on current chemotherapy},
  author={Benjamin Jelle Visser and Michele van Vugt and Martin Peter Grobusch},
  journal={Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy},
  pages={2219 - 2254}
Introduction: Chemotherapy of malaria has become a rapidly changing field. Less than two decades ago, treatment regimens were increasingly bound to fail due to emerging drug resistance against 4-aminoquinolines and sulfa compounds. By now, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) constitute the standard of care for uncomplicated falciparum malaria and are increasingly also taken into consideration for the treatment of non-falciparum malaria. Areas covered: This narrative review provides… 

Efficacy and safety of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for non-falciparum malaria: a systematic review

Artemisinin combination therapy is at least equivalent to chloroquine in effectively treating non-falciparum malaria and may facilitate development of simplified protocols for treating all forms of malaria with ACT, including returning travellers.

Reviewing anti-malarial usage and resistance patterns and its effects on World Health Organisation programs

The historical usage of anti-malarial drugs, the development of resistance in Africa and Asia, mechanisms of drug action and resistance, and the effects of resistance on WHO policy are reviewed.

Treatment regimens for pregnant women with falciparum malaria

With increasing parasite drug resistance, the WHO has updated treatment recommendations for falciparum malaria including in pregnancy, and this review assesses the evidence for choice of treatment for pregnant women.

Malaria and tuberculosis as diseases of neglected populations: state of the art in chemotherapy and advances in the search for new drugs

This literature review provides an overview of the state of the art of antimalarial and antituberculosis chemotherapies, emphasising novel drugs introduced in the pharmaceutical market and the advances in research of new candidates for these diseases, and including some aspects of their mechanism/sites of action.

Exploring Nanotechnologies for the Effective Therapy of Malaria Using Plant-Based Medicines.

This report would systematically review the literature, emphasizing the challenges encountered in the control of malaria, active phytochemicals currently utilised in the management, drug delivery approaches as well as the nanotechnology-based systems that could be exploited in its treatment.

Fosmidomycin as an antimalarial drug: a meta-analysis of clinical trials.

An overview of the state-of-the-art of the clinical development of Fos as an antimalarial drug is provided and data suggest that besides the partner drug, formulation determines efficacy.

Physicochemical investigation and in vivo activity of anti-malarial drugs co-loaded in Tween 80 niosomes

The findings of the study suggest that niosome-based PRI–CC combination therapy may be a promising approach in the treatment of malaria.

Diversity-oriented synthesis and activity evaluation of substituted bicyclic lactams as anti-malarial against Plasmodium falciparum

This study unveils a DOS-mediated exploration of small molecules with novel structural motifs that culminates in identifying a potential lead molecule against malaria.

Pharmacology and pharmacodynamics of selected antimalarials against P. falciparum gametocytes

A main focus of the thesis was conducted to better understand the mechanism of drug activity of the 8-aminoquinolines against gametocytes, and revealed that the efficacy of active tested compounds is highly stage-specific.



Emerging drugs for malaria

The lack of new treatments for severe malaria and the predominance of artemisinin-based combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria is concerning, and future research should be directed towards the discovery of new therapeutic principles.

A pharmacokinetic approach to assess artemisinin–naphthoquine combination therapy for uncomplicated pediatric malaria

Evaluation of: Batty KT, Salman S, Moore BR et al. Artemisinin–naphthoquine combination therapy for uncomplicated pediatric malaria: a pharmacokinetic study. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56(5),

Small molecule anti-malarial patents: a review (January 2010 – June 2011)

This review covers patents published in English between January 2010 and June 2011, which feature small molecules for the treatment of malaria, and identifies novel drugs to support the malaria eradication agenda.

Discovery, mechanisms of action and combination therapy of artemisinin

  • L. CuiX. Su
  • Medicine, Biology
    Expert review of anti-infective therapy
  • 2009
The history of artemisinin discovery is reviewed, the mode of action and potential drug targets are discussed, and strategies to elucidate resistance mechanisms are presented.

Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

P. falciparum has reduced in vivo susceptibility to artesunate in western Cambodia as compared with northwestern Thailand, and resistance is characterized by slow parasite clearance in vivo without corresponding reductions on conventional in vitro susceptibility testing.

Artemisinin combination therapy for vivax malaria.

Artemether and lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa

  • B. Ogutu
  • Medicine
    Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • 2013
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and AL is an important antimalarial that will play a major role as countries move towards the elimination of malaria.

Treatment of imported severe malaria with artesunate instead of quinine - more evidence needed?

The implications of existing evidence for the treatment of imported severe malaria are discussed and current evidence shows that intravenous artesunate is more effective than quinine in treating severe malaria in endemic countries.

Current knowledge and challenges of antimalarial drugs for treatment and prevention in pregnancy

The current antimalarial drugs recommended for pregnancy are reviewed, as well as the guidelines for both treatment and prevention in women living in endemic areas and for travellers.

Shifting from quinine to artesunate as first-line treatment of severe malaria in children and adults: saving more lives.

  • J. Noubiap
  • Medicine
    Journal of infection and public health
  • 2014