Making a medicine out of MDMA.

  title={Making a medicine out of MDMA.},
  author={Ben Sessa and David J. Nutt},
  journal={The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science},
  volume={206 1},
  • B. Sessa, D. Nutt
  • Published 2015
  • Medicine, Psychology, Biology
  • The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science
From its first use 3,4,-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been recognised as a drug with therapeutic potential. Research on its clinical utility stopped when it entered the recreational drug scene but has slowly resurrected in the past decade. Currently there is enough evidence for MDMA to be removed from its Schedule 1 status of 'no medical use' and moved into Schedule 2 (alongside other misused but useful medicines such as heroin and amphetamine). Such a regulatory move would liberate… 
Psychedelic drugs—a new era in

  • D. Nutt
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Dialogues in clinical neuroscience
  • 2019
The renaissance of classical psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin and LSD plus 3,4-methylene dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA—ecstasy) in psychiatric research is covered, which is likely to see these medicines approved for clinical practice soon afterwards.
A Review of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-Assisted Psychotherapy
Other potential therapeutic applications for MDMA therapy are described, including contemporary studies treating anxiety associated with autism and the authors' ongoing study exploring the potential role for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy to treat alcohol use disorder.
Can 3,4,-methylenedioxymethamphetamine therapy be used to treat alcohol use disorder?
MDMA has some unique pharmacological characteristics – particularly its capacity for reducing the fear response and facilitating engagement in therapy around past psychological trauma – that could make it a useful candidate for tackling the core features of alcohol use disorder.
Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine.
The synthesis of MDMA is detailed as well as its pharmacology, metabolism, adverse effects, and potential use in medicine, which discusses its history and why it is perhaps the most important compound for the future of psychedelic science.
Debunking the myth of ‘Blue Mondays’: No evidence of affect drop after taking clinical MDMA
The results support the overall safety and tolerability of clinically administered MDMA and suggest that the ‘come downs’ previously associated with the substance may be explained by confounds in research relating to the illicit sourcing of the drug and specific environmental setting for recreational consumption.
MDMA and memory, addiction, and depression: dose-effect analysis
The present dose-ranging study provides further evidence that 3 mg/kg is the threshold for MDMA-induced amnesia and demonstrates that careful selection of MDMA dose is critical.
Legitimate Medicine in the Age of Consumerism
Recognizing the expansiveness of medicine’s domain does argue for clarifying the scope of physicians’ criminal liability and pursuing new strategies for harnessing drugs’ benefits while mitigating their risks.
Motor delays in MDMA (ecstasy) exposed infants persist to 2 years.
A psychological exploration of long-term LSD users
All research involving the psychoactive compound lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was terminated globally following its prohibition more than 50 years ago, though illicit use remained fairly stable.
Underground MDMA-, LSD- and 2-CB-assisted individual and group psychotherapy in Zurich: Outcomes, implications and commentary
Underground psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy has persisted in Europe despite the banning of the substances LSD and MDMA in the 1960s and 1980s, respectively. This article describes the work of a


Could MDMA be useful in the treatment of post‐traumatic stress disorder?
Dr Sessa discusses controversies and describes a UK‐based MDMA/PTSD currently in development, which she describes as an adjunct to post‐trauma psychological therapy.
Brain serotonin transporter binding in former users of MDMA ('ecstasy').
To the extent that [(11)C]DASB binding provides an index of the integrity of serotonin neurons, the findings suggest that MDMA use may not result in long-term damage to serotonin neurons when used recreationally in humans.
Effects of MDMA and Intranasal Oxytocin on Social and Emotional Processing
The present findings provide only limited support for the idea that oxytocin produces the prosocial effects of MDMA, which increases euphoria and feelings of sociability.
Subjective reports of the effects of MDMA in a clinical setting.
The psychological effects of MDMA were first relaboratory of Alexander Shulgin, Ph.D., who had colported in 1978 by Shulkin and Nichols and was no synthesis, and was synthesized in the actual or possible pregnancy.
MDMA effects consistent across laboratories
The subjective and physiological responses to the drug across three different laboratories and the influence of prior MDMA use indicate that the pharmacological effects of MDMA are robust and highly reproducible across settings.
A Window into the Intoxicated Mind? Speech as an Index of Psychoactive Drug Effects
Abused drugs can profoundly alter mental states in ways that may motivate drug use. These effects are usually assessed with self-report, an approach that is vulnerable to biases. Analyzing speech
A reconsideration and response to Parrott AC (2013) “Human psychobiology of MDMA or ‘Ecstasy’: an overview of 25 years of empirical research”
Though it critiques an attempt by other authors to characterize the risks of MDMA, the review fails to produce a competing model of risk assessment, and does not discuss potential benefits, which may deter researchers from further investigating an innovative treatment.
MDMA decreases the effects of simulated social rejection
MDMA assisted psychotherapy found to have a large effect for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder
  • H. Chabrol
  • Psychology
    Journal of psychopharmacology
  • 2013
These subjects with resistant, chronic PTSD showed, on average, a substantial improvement in PTSD symptoms over the course of MDMA assisted psychotherapy, which is a potential solution to express the findings in terms of effect sizes using Cohen’s d.