Making Sounds with Numbers: A Tutorial on Music Software Dedicated to Digital Audio

  title={Making Sounds with Numbers: A Tutorial on Music Software Dedicated to Digital Audio},
  author={Nicola Bernardini and Davide Rocchesso},
  journal={Journal of New Music Research},
  pages={141 - 151}
A (partial) taxonomy of software applications devoted to sounds is presented. For each category of software applications, an model is proposed an actual implementations are evaluated with respect to this model. 

Vuza: a functional language for creative applications

The keypoint of the language is to bring the expressivity and the flexiblity of functional programming to digital art and computer music and make possible to embed such power in host applications.

Making sound with numbers , six years later

A revision of the concepts expressed in an extensive tutorial on professional and research software devoted to sound and music making, focusing particularly to the aspects related to research and innovation fostered by a strong paradigm shift that has happened in the mean time: that of Free Software development.


The project goal is to define a means of giving easy access to the power and flexibility of the MPEG-4 SA framework.

Languages for Computer Music

This chapter considers models of computation that are especially important for music programming, how these models are supported in programming languages, and how this leads to expressive and efficient programs.

A lock-free environment for computer music: concurrent components for computer supported cooperative work

This dissertation investigates the use of lock-free shared-memory techniques for distributed computer music composition and performance environments by presenting a method by which the underlying user-interface structures may be separated from their manipulation, establishing an environment in which concurrent applications can provide multiple real-time views of shared components.

Effects of visual-auditory incongruity on product expression and surprise

Product experience is influenced by information from all the senses. Our experiments provide insight into how sounds contribute to the overall experience of a product’s expression. We manipulated the

Tools Facilitating Multi-sensory Product Design

An overview of tools that can help designers to determine and obtain the desired forms of sensory stimulation for their designs are discussed, including sensitizing designers, sampling objects with sensory qualities, making and using sensory building blocks, and communicating with others.

Sensory incongruity and surprise in product design

People continuously experience the world and the objects in it through all their senses. Product designers can influence the way people experience products by paying attention to the multiple sensory


The project goal is to define a means of giving easy access to the power and flexibility of the MPEG-4 SA framework.



Elements of computer music

This is a general introduction to the theory of computer music, giving details on sound, digital signal processing, math, and C programming. It assumes a strong knowledge of music.

Different Ways to Write Digital Audio Effects Programs

This paper is a very basic one, where one tries to explain how one can write a digital audio effect in a non-real time situation with a very general mathematical language such as MATLAB, and how such

Structured audio: creation, transmission, and rendering of parametric sound representations

An overview of techniques for transmitting and synthesizing sound represented in structured format, and for creating structured representations from audio waveforms are presented.

The Implementation of Nyquist, A Sound Synthesis Language

It is shown how this representation for signals in Nyquist supports Nyquist semantics in a space and timeefficient manner.

A sound analysis/synthesis system based on a deterministic plus stochastic decomposition

This paper addresses the second category of synthesis technique: spectrum modeling and describes a technique called specftal modeling synthesis {SMSl, that models time-varying spectra as a collection of sinusoids controlled through time by piecewise linear amplitude and frequency envelopes.

Machine Tongues XV: Three Packages for Software Sound Synthesis

The technology of SWSS is discussed and the three widely-used, portable, C-language SWSS tools are compared; the first part introduces SWSS in terms of progressive examples and compares the three systems using the same two instrument/score examples written in each of them.

EIN: A Signal Processing Scratchpad

EIN is an attempt to provide an interface in which the user has direct control over every add, multiply and store applied to each sample, and can gain a more direct understanding of the machinery of digital signal processing.

Machine tongues XIX: Nyquist, a language for composition and sound synthesis

The goal of Nyquist is to provide an open-ended programming language that supports high-level compositional tasks in addition to low-level signal processing, and includes behavioral abstraction as introduced by Arctic, Dannenberg 1984, and Canon 1989.

RTcmix - Using CMIX in Real Time

This demonstration will show the capabilities of RTcmix, a set of extensions and modifications to the CMIX computer music language enabling it to function as a real-time programming environment.