Making Planet Nine: A Scattered Giant in the Outer Solar System

@article{Bromley2016MakingPN,
  title={Making Planet Nine: A Scattered Giant in the Outer Solar System},
  author={Benjamin C. Bromley and Scott J. Kenyon},
  journal={arXiv: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics},
  year={2016}
}
Correlations in the orbits of several minor planets in the outer solar system suggest the presence of a remote, massive Planet Nine. With at least ten times the mass of the Earth and a perihelion well beyond 100 AU, Planet Nine poses a challenge to planet formation theory. Here we expand on a scenario in which the planet formed closer to the Sun and was gravitationally scattered by Jupiter or Saturn onto a very eccentric orbit in an extended gaseous disk. Dynamical friction with the gas then… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Circularizing Planet Nine through dynamical friction with an extended, cold planetesimal belt
Unexpected clustering in the orbital elements of minor bodies beyond the Kuiper belt has led to speculations that our Solar system actually hosts nine planets, the eight established plus aExpand
The fates of Solar system analogues with one additional distant planet
The potential existence of a distant planet (“Planet Nine”) in the Solar system has prompted a re-think about the evolution of planetary systems. As the Sun transitions from a main sequence star intoExpand
CONSEQUENCES of A DISTANT MASSIVE PLANET on the LARGE SEMIMAJOR AXIS TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECTS
We explore the distant giant planet hypothesis by integrating the large semi-major axis, large pericenter Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) in the presence of the giant planets and an external perturberExpand
The Influence of Planet Nine on the Orbits of Distant TNOs: The Case for a Low-perihelion Planet
The hypothesis of an additional planet in the outer solar system has gained new support as a result of the confinement noted in the angular orbital elements of distant trans-Neptunian objects.Expand
The Effect of Protoplanetary Disk Cooling Times on the Formation of Gas Giant Planets by Gravitational Instability
Observational evidence exists for the formation of gas giant planets on wide orbits around young stars by disk gravitational instability, but the roles of disk instability and core accretion forExpand
The Generation of the Distant Kuiper Belt by Planet Nine from an Initially Broad Perihelion Distribution
The observation that the orbits of long-period Kuiper Belt objects are anomalously clustered in physical space has recently prompted the Planet Nine hypothesis - the proposed existence of a distantExpand
Constraints on Planet Nine’s Orbit and Sky Position within a Framework of Mean-motion Resonances
A number of authors have proposed that the statistically significant orbital alignment of the most distant Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) is evidence of an as-yet undetected planet in the outer solarExpand
The Hunt for Planet Nine: Atmosphere, Spectra, Evolution, and Detectability
We investigate the physical characteristics of the Solar System's proposed Planet Nine using modeling tools with a heritage in studying Uranus and Neptune. For a range of plausible masses andExpand
Two new free-floating or wide-orbit planets from microlensing
Planet formation theories predict the existence of free-floating planets that have been ejected from their parent systems. Although they emit little or no light, they can be detected duringExpand
H-Atmospheres of Icy Super-Earths Formed in situ in the Outer Solar System: An Application to a Possible Planet Nine
We examine the possibility that icy super-Earth mass planets, formed over long time scales (0.1--1~Gyr) at large distances ($\sim$ 200--1000~AU) from their host stars, will develop massive H-richExpand
...
1
2
3
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 14 REFERENCES
Observational constraints on the orbit and location of Planet Nine in the outer solar system
We use an extensive suite of numerical simulations to constrain the mass and orbit of Planet Nine, the recently proposed perturber in a distant eccentric orbit in the outer solar system. We compareExpand
Evolution and magnitudes of candidate Planet Nine
Context. The recently renewed interest in a possible additional major body in the outer solar system prompted us to study the thermodynamic evolution of such an object. We assumed that it is aExpand
Interaction Cross Sections and Survival Rates for Proposed Solar System Member Planet Nine
Motivated by the report of a possible new planetary member of the Solar System, this work calculates cross sections for interactions between passing stars and this proposed Planet Nine. Evidence forExpand
Constraints on the location of a possible 9th planet derived from the Cassini data
To explain the unusual distribution of Kuiper belt objects, several authors have advocated the existence of a super-Earth planet in the outer solar system. It has recently been proposed that a 10 M⊕Expand
Finding Planet Nine: a Monte Carlo approach
Planet Nine is a hypothetical planet located well beyond Pluto that has been proposed in an attempt to explain the observed clustering in physical space of the perihelia of six extremeExpand
Blackbody Radiation from Isolated Neptunes
Recent analyses of the orbits of some Kuiper Belt objects hypothesize the presence of an undiscovered Neptune-size planet at a very large separation from the Sun. The energy budget of Neptunes onExpand
Cosmologists in Search of Planet Nine: the Case for CMB Experiments
Cosmology experiments at mm-wavelengths can detect Planet Nine if it is the size of Neptune, has an effective temperature of 40 K, and is 700 AU from the Sun. It would appear as a ~30 mJy source at 1Expand
Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems
Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems is a compendium of modern astronomical research covering subjects of key interest to the main fields of contemporary astronomy. The six volumes of the set edited byExpand
The Evolution of Self-Gravitating Accretion Discs
  • K. Rice
  • Physics
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia
  • 2016
Abstract It is quite likely that self-gravity will play an important role in the evolution of accretion discs, in particular, those around young stars, and those around supermassive black holes. WeExpand
Corralling a distant planet with extreme resonant Kuiper belt objects
The four longest period Kuiper belt objects have orbital periods close to integer ratios with each other. A hypothetical planet with orbital period $\sim$17,117 years, semimajor axis $\sim$665 AU,Expand
...
1
2
...