Magnitudes and timescales of total solar irradiance variability

  title={Magnitudes and timescales of total solar irradiance variability},
  author={Greg Kopp},
  journal={Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate},
  • G. Kopp
  • Published 16 June 2016
  • Physics, Environmental Science
  • Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate
The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to gigayears. Direct measurements of the total solar irradiance (TSI) show changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy on timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. Variations of ~0.01% over a few minutes are caused by the ever-present superposition of convection and oscillations with very large solar flares on rare occasion causing slightly-larger measurable signals. On timescales of days to… 

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