Bone assessment in children with chronic kidney disease: data from two new bone imaging techniques in a single-center pilot study
Background. Improved life expectancy of children with chronic renal failure (CRF) has increased the number of patients with renal osteodystrophy and has brought to light novel and severe forms of the disease. These factors have contributed to the need to evaluate new, noninvasive imaging modalities for the detection of bone involvement. Objectives. To evaluate the potential of MRI in the detection of the bone changes of renal osteodystrophy as compared to conventional X-rays. Materials and methods. Fourteen children with CRF were examined with a 0.5-T MR unit using TI-weighted and STIR sequences and conventional radiographs. The following features were reviewed in a nonblinded study: skeletal deformities, thickening of cortical bone, trabecular pattern, intraosseous soft-tissue masses, osteonecrosis, extraskeletal calcifications and bone marrow signal changes. Results. MRI adequately demonstrated skeletal deformities, cortical thickening and irregular trabecular pattern. It showed osteonecrosis and intraosseous soft-tissue masses more conspicuously than X-ray. In addition, it revealed diffuse nonspecific signal changes in the bone marrow. Conclusion. MRI is a potentially useful tool for evaluating the bone changes of renal osteodystrophy.