Magnetic resonance imaging: bioeffects and safety concerns.


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the state-of-the-art noninvasive imaging modality in clinical diagnosis. During MRI examination, the patient is exposed to three different forms of electromagnetic radiation: (i) a static magnetic field, (ii) gradient magnetic fields, and (iii) radiofrequency (RF) fields. Each of these may cause significant adverse… (More)


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