Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used to treat and prevent eclamptic seizures, and several anticonvulsant drugs (e.g., sodium valproate) are clinically effective antimanic drugs. Psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion has been proposed as an animal model for the study of antimanic drugs. The present study evaluated the effects of MgSO4 and sodium valproate (as a positive control) on hyperlocomotion induced by methylphenidate in mice. Acute MgSO4 (300-400 mg/kg), but not sodium valproate (100-300 mg/kg), prevented the increase in locomotor activity induced by methylphenidate (5.0 mg/kg). In contrast, repeated treatment (14 days) with valproate (300 mg/kg), but not MgSO4 (400 mg/kg), blocked methylphenidate-induced hyperlocomotion. Thus, acute MgSO4 exerted antimanic-like effects in this animal model.