Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease.

  title={Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease.},
  author={Jeroen H. F. de Baaij and Joost G. J. Hoenderop and Ren{\'e} J. M. Bindels},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  volume={95 1},
Magnesium (Mg(2+)) is an essential ion to the human body, playing an instrumental role in supporting and sustaining health and life. As the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium, it is involved in over 600 enzymatic reactions including energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Although Mg(2+) availability has been proven to be disturbed during several clinical situations, serum Mg(2+) values are not generally determined in patients. This review aims to provide an overview of… 

Pathophysiology of Drug-Induced Hypomagnesaemia

The function of Mg 2+ is presented, how it is handled in the kidney and the drugs that cause hypomagnesaemia are presented, and the frequency and the number of drugs like diuretics and proton-pump inhibitors that are used daily in medical practice are discussed in order to prevent and treat adverse effects.

Role of Magnesium in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Imbalances in Mg 2+ status, more frequently hypomagnesemia, inhibit glucose transporter type 4 translocation, increase insulin resistance, affect lipid metabolism, induce oxidative stress, and impair the antioxidant system of endothelial cells.

The Role of Magnesium in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Disorders

It currently seems that Mg plays an important role in developing metabolic disorders associated with obesity, although more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating Mg supplementation strategies are needed.

Magnesium and Human Health: Perspectives and Research Directions

This review is aimed at comprehensively collating the current available published evidence and clinical correlates of magnesium disorders and its role as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions.

Mg status in inflammation, insulin resistance, and associated conditions

This review has the latest information of human and animal studies about Mg status evaluated from plasma, erythrocyte and urine, dietary inadequacy, and its relation to inflammation and to components of metabolic syndrome.

Magnesium Balance and Measurement.

A discussion as to where magnesium is stored, handled, absorbed, and excreted is provided and approaches for the assessment of magnesium status are discussed.

Genetics of Magnesium Disorders

Understanding rare and genetic diseases of Mg2+ dysregulation has expanded knowledge and furthers the development of strategies for preventing and managing dysmagnesemia.

Magnesium in aging and aging-related disease

Recent findings supporting an important role of Mg2+ in aging-related disease including the COVID-19 pandemic are summarized.

‘Magnesium’-the master cation-as a drug—possibilities and evidences

The roles of Mg2+ such as natural calcium antagonist, glutamate NMDA receptor blocker, vasodilator, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent are responsible for its therapeutic benefits.

Challenges in the Diagnosis of Magnesium Status

The causes of magnesium deficiency, absorption, handling, and compartmentalization in the body are discussed, highlighting the challenges this creates in determining magnesium status in both clinical and research settings.



Hypomagnesemia and Hypermagnesemia

  • J. TopfP. Murray
  • Medicine, Biology
    Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
  • 2004
Clinical sequelae of altered magnesium content are more dependent on tissue magnesium levels rather than blood magnesium concentration, so it is often difficult to consistently correlate symptoms to specific plasma magnesium levels.

Why all migraine patients should be treated with magnesium

Empiric treatment with at least oral magnesium is warranted in all migraine sufferers because both oral and intravenous magnesium are widely available, extremely safe, very inexpensive and for patients who are magnesium deficient can be highly effective.

Magnesium deficiency in alcoholism: possible contribution to osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in alcoholics.

Mg deficiency may increase platelet aggregation and cause increased hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in alcoholics.

Alteration of myocardial mechanics in marginal magnesium deficiency.

Experimental and clinical studies indicate the possibility of a marginal decrease in myocardial magnesium compared to those with sufficient intake, and the additive action of free radical generation in magnesium deficiency and the cardiac consequence.

Brain and CSF magnesium concentrations during magnesium deficit in animals and humans: neurological symptoms.

  • M. Morris
  • Biology, Medicine
    Magnesium research
  • 1992
Magnesium is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions, especially those involved in energy metabolism. Deficits of magnesium are prevalent due to inadequate intake or malabsorption and due

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System

The evidence suggesting that alterations in intracellular free magnesium concentration may be an injury factor in acute and chronic CNS injury, as well as the potential for magnesium administration to be neuroprotective under these conditions are critically examined.

Reduced intracellular magnesium concentrations in asthmatic patients.

The low cellular concentration of magnesium may be associated with airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients, and a magnesium tolerance test showed increased retention of magnesium.

Magnesium deficiency: Possible role in osteoporosis associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy

It is demonstrated that GSE patients have reduction in intracellular free Mg2+, despite being clinically asymptomatic on a gluten-free diet, and bone mass also appears to be reduced.

The Effect of Magnesium Supplementation in Increasing Doses on the Control of Type 2 Diabetes

Mg depletion is common in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with neuropathy or coronary disease, and more prolonged use of Mg in doses that are higher than usual is needed to improve control or prevent chronic complications.