Mafic Plinian volcanism and ignimbrite emplacement at Tofua volcano, Tonga

@article{Caulfield2011MaficPV,
  title={Mafic Plinian volcanism and ignimbrite emplacement at Tofua volcano, Tonga},
  author={John T. Caulfield and Shane J. Cronin and Simon P. Turner and Lauren Beth Cooper},
  journal={Bulletin of Volcanology},
  year={2011},
  volume={73},
  pages={1259-1277}
}
Tofua Island is the largest emergent mafic volcano within the Tofua arc, Tonga, southwest Pacific. The volcano is dominated by a distinctive caldera averaging 4 km in diameter, containing a freshwater lake in the south and east. The latest paroxysmal (VEI 5–6) explosive volcanism includes two phases of activity, each emplacing a high-grade ignimbrite. The products are basaltic andesites with between 52 wt.% and 57 wt.% SiO2. The first and largest eruption caused the inward collapse of a… 

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Corrigendum to ‘Magma Evolution in the Primitive, Intra-oceanic Tonga Arc: Petrogenesis of Basaltic Andesites at Tofua Volcano’ and ‘Magma Evolution in the Primitive, Intra-oceanic Tonga Arc: Rapid Petrogenesis of Dacites at Fonualei Volcano’

Primitive, Intra-oceanic Tonga Arc: Petrogenesis of Basaltic Andesites at Tofua Volcano’ and ‘Magma Evolution in the Primitive, Intra-oceanic Tonga Arc: Rapid Petrogenesis of Dacites at Fonualei

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In situ observations on a basaltic melt, rheological measurements in an analog system, and modeling demonstrate how just a few volume % of nanolites results in a marked increase in viscosity above the critical value needed for explosive fragmentation, even for a low-viscosity melt.

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