The objective of the current article was to compare the quality of the healing process after hysterorrhaphy with catgut and chitosan suture wires via macroscopic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical evaluations. Seven ewes were submitted to a video-assisted laparotomy. A hysterectomy was performed with subsequent catgut and chitosan hysterorrhaphy in both horns. Then, macroscopic evaluation and biopsies of the hysterorrhaphy and control areas were carried out after 30 days. Although postoperative adhesion was observed in five animals of the catgut group, no adhesions were detected in the chitosan one. Additionally, there was a significant difference in increasing collagen type III and connective tissue for the chitosan group when compared to the control and catgut groups. A larger amount of blood vessels was also observed in the control group in comparison with the catgut and chitosan groups. Collagen type I and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) were significantly different among groups. Thus, chitosan promoted a preventive effect on postoperative adhesion formation in the hysterorrhaphy areas, with increasing collagen type III deposition during tissue mending, which granted an enhanced healing process.