Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is upregulated in an endotoxin-induced model of bladder inflammation in rats.

@article{MeyerSiegler2004MacrophageMI,
  title={Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is upregulated in an endotoxin-induced model of bladder inflammation in rats.},
  author={Katherine L. Meyer-Siegler and Raul C Ordorica and Pedro L. Vera},
  journal={Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research},
  year={2004},
  volume={24 1},
  pages={55-63}
}
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine found in epithelial cells as preformed stores, such that MIF release can activate innate immune responses. Our identification of MIF stores in the urothelium suggests that MIF may function in the bladder's initial response to infectious stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To test this hypothesis, we observed changes in MIF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and c-fos in the bladder, L6-S1 spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion… CONTINUE READING

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