Macrophage activation and polarization.

  title={Macrophage activation and polarization.},
  author={Fernando O. Mart{\'i}nez and Antonio Sica and Alberto Mantovani and Massimo Locati},
  journal={Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library},
Macrophages are widely distributed immune system cells that play an indispensable role in homeostasis and defense. They can be phenotypically polarized by the microenvironment to mount specific functional programs. Polarized macrophages can be broadly classified in two main groups: classically activated macrophages (or M1), whose prototypical activating stimuli are IFNgamma and LPS, and alternatively activated macrophages (or M2), further subdivided in M2a (after exposure to IL-4 or IL-13), M2b… 

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