MRI monitoring of immunomodulation in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis trials

  title={MRI monitoring of immunomodulation in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis trials},
  author={Frederik Barkhof and Jack Simon and Franz Fazekas and Marco Rovaris and Ludwig Kappos and Nicola De Stefano and Chris H. Polman and John Petkau and Ernst Wilhelm Radue and Maria Pia Sormani and David K B Li and Paul O'Connor and Xavier Montalban and David H. Miller and Massimo Filippi},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neurology},
Over the past 15 years, MRI lesion activity has become the accepted surrogate primary outcome measure in proof-of-concept placebo-controlled clinical trials of new immunomodulating therapies in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS). In parallel, the number of patients that are available for the placebo arm of trials has declined, and more-aggressive drugs are being developed. A critical review is warranted to ensure efficient MRI—and patient—resource utilization. Recently, an international… CONTINUE READING
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