Early brain temperature elevation and anaerobic metabolism in human acute ischaemic stroke.
Thermal therapy of tumour including hyperthermia and thermal ablation by heat or cold delivery requires on line monitoring. Due to its temperature sensitivity, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) allows thermal mapping at the time of the treatment. The different techniques of MR temperature monitoring based on water proton resonance frequency (PRF), longitudinal relaxation time Tl, diffusion coefficient and MR Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) are reviewed and debated. The PRF method appears the most widely used and the most efficient at high magnetic field in spite of important drawbacks. The Tl method is the easiest method of visualisation of qualitative temperature distribution and quantitative measurement seems possible in the tissue surrounding the tumour up to a temperature of 45–65°C. Despite its high temperature sensitivity, application of the diffusion method in vivo is restricted due to its high motion sensitivity. The recent MRSI technique seems very promising provided acquisition times can be reduced. Results from the literature indicate that MR temperature monitoring in vivo can be achieved in vivo with a precision of about 3°C in 13 s for a voxel of 16 mm3 (1.5 × 1.5 × 7 mm) in 1.5 T scanners.