MONEY, RELIGION, AND POLITICS: THE OUDH BEQUEST IN NAJAF AND KARBALA[ham], 1850–1903

@article{Litvak2001MONEYRA,
  title={MONEY, RELIGION, AND POLITICS: THE OUDH BEQUEST IN NAJAF AND KARBALA[ham], 1850–1903},
  author={Meir Litvak},
  journal={International Journal of Middle East Studies},
  year={2001},
  volume={33},
  pages={1 - 21}
}
  • M. Litvak
  • Published 1 February 2001
  • History
  • International Journal of Middle East Studies
“Money was the life blood of Najaf.” Thus observed the Shi[ayn]i author, [ayn]Ali Khaqani.1The story of the Oudh Bequest, which channeled more than 6 million rupees from the Shi[ayn]i kingdom of Awadh2in India to the two Shi[ayn]i shrine cities of Najaf and Karbala[ham] in Iraq during the second half of the 19th century is a fine example of Khaqani's assessment. These [ayn]Ataba¯t-i [ayn]a¯liya¯t (“sublime thresholds”) were the most important centers of learning in Shi[ayn]ism during the 19th… 

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