author={Meir Litvak},
  journal={International Journal of Middle East Studies},
  pages={1 - 21}
  • M. Litvak
  • Published 1 February 2001
  • History
  • International Journal of Middle East Studies
“Money was the life blood of Najaf.” Thus observed the Shi[ayn]i author, [ayn]Ali Khaqani.1The story of the Oudh Bequest, which channeled more than 6 million rupees from the Shi[ayn]i kingdom of Awadh2in India to the two Shi[ayn]i shrine cities of Najaf and Karbala[ham] in Iraq during the second half of the 19th century is a fine example of Khaqani's assessment. These [ayn]Ataba¯t-i [ayn]a¯liya¯t (“sublime thresholds”) were the most important centers of learning in Shi[ayn]ism during the 19th… 

‘Indian Money’, Intra-Shīʿī Polemics, and the Bohra and Khoja Pilgrimage Infrastructure in Iraq's Shrine Cities, 1897–1932

Abstract Using sources in Arabic, Gujarati, Ottoman, Persian and Urdu, this article examines the foundation of Bohra and Khoja pilgrimage institutions straddling western India and Iraq's Shīʿī shrine

‘Fugitive Mullahs and Outlawed Fanatics’: Indian Muslims in nineteenth century trans-Asiatic Imperial Rivalries

Abstract This paper follows the careers of ‘outlawed’ Indian Muslim subjects who moved outside the geographical and political space of British India and located themselves at the intersection of

An Uncertain Inheritance: The Imperial Travels of Legal Migrants, from British India to Ottoman Iraq

Like many nineteenth-century travelers, Iqbal al-Daulah, a cousin of the Nawab of the Indian princely state of Awadh, navigated multiple legal systems as he migrated across Asia, Europe, and the

Pan-Islamic bonds and interest: Ottoman bonds, Red Crescent remittances and the limits of Indian Muslim capital, 1877–1924

This article analyses the Ottoman government’s attempt to encourage Indian Muslims to purchase its treasury bonds during the Balkan Wars in 1912–13. It contrasts this largely unsuccessful scheme with

The Hissing Sectarian Snake: Sectarianism and the Making of State and Nation in Modern Iraq

This thesis addresses the relationship between sectarianism and state-making and nationbuilding in Iraq. It argues that sectarianism has been an enduring feature of the state-making trajectory in

Adoption of Change Under Islamic Law: Case Study of the Waqf of Shares and Securities

The British Indian Courts are criticised for stultifying Islamic law by relying only on the translations of selected classical legal texts and operating under the doctrine of precedent. This paper

The Turn of the Gulf Tide: Empire, Nationalism, and South Asian Labor Migration to Iraq, c. 1900–1935

  • Stefan Tetzlaff
  • Sociology, Economics
    International Labor and Working-Class History
  • 2011
Abstract This paper looks at various circumstances of labor migration from South Asia to Iraq between 1900 and 1935. It stresses that inter-regional labor migration existed to varying degrees before,

Iranian Culture and South Asia, 1500-1900

Cole, Juan R., 2002 : « Iranian Culture and South Asia, 1500-1900 » in : N. R. Keddi ; R. Matthee, eds., Iran and the Surrounding World. Interactions in Culture and Cultural Politics (Seattle –

Rethinking the "Middle East" after the Oceanic Turn

Models of geographical space are empowered by a hard rhetoric that, in suggesting the concrete stability of the longue duree , lends the aura of geological fixity. But while places might themselves

Publications on financial history

This bibliography covers publications that appeared during 2001 and during the year 2000 when they were not known before the deadline of last year’s bibliography. In that case, the year of



Usurious Piety: The Cash Waqf Controversy in the Ottoman Empire

Among the various institutions and practices singled out as distinctly Ottoman contributions to Islamic civilization, one has drawn surprisingly little comment and analysis. Neither so eye-catching

Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia

This is the most important single source of historical material on the Gulf States and Saudi Arabia. Lorimer's Gazetteer was compiled with the original intention of providing British agents and

Mafia, Mob and Shi ism in Iraq: The Rebellion of Ottoman Karbala

  • Past and Present
  • 1986

GIFD internal proceedings

  • P/6652. See also Yahya Dawlatabadi's condescending remarks on Arab mujtahids in his Hayat-e Yahya, 4 vols. (Tehran, 1341s/1963)

P/3966. On the dubious reliability and effectiveness of these lists, see Mockler to Secretary to the Government of India at the Foreign Department

  • GIFD internal proceedings for

Appendix C, Instructions to Marine

    Dast-i pinhan-i siyasat-i inglis dar iran (Tehran, n.d.), 104

      Ansari's proposal for distribution

        One petition alone claimed more than 700 signatures, and another, 318. Several others contained several dozen signatories each