MITOCHONDRIAL DNA IN GASTEROSTEUS AND PLEISTOCENE GLACIAL REFUGIUM ON THE QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, BRITISH COLUMBIA

@article{OReilly1993MITOCHONDRIALDI,
  title={MITOCHONDRIAL DNA IN GASTEROSTEUS AND PLEISTOCENE GLACIAL REFUGIUM ON THE QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, BRITISH COLUMBIA},
  author={Patrick T. O’Reilly and Thomas E. Reimchen and Robin Nicholas Beech and Curtis Strobeck},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={1993},
  volume={47}
}
Freshwater populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) along the coast of western North America exhibit extensive morphological divergence from marine conspecifics, the presumed ancestors to freshwater populations (Hagen and McPhail, 1970; Bell, 1976). Marine sticklebacks are characterized by a complete series of bony lateral plates (30 to 35 per side) and prominent dorsal and pelvic spines. Typically, freshwater sticklebacks resemble the marine form, but can be distinguished… 
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mitochondrial DNA lineages of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in the northeastern Pacific Basin: post-glacial dispersal and lake
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TLDR
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PARALLEL EVOLUTION OF LAKE‐STREAM PAIRS OF THREESPINE STICKLEBACKS (GASTEROSTEUS) INFERRED FROM MITOCHONDRIAL DNA VARIATION
TLDR
Divergent mtDNA lineages in North Pacific sticklebacks stem from historical isolation in the two major glacial refugia proposed for the North Pacific (Beringia and Cascadia); the stream and lake pair in Misty Lake are distinct gene pools; the divergence between parapatric lake and stream Gasterosteus represents parallel evolution having occurred at least twice in the NorthPacific.
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TLDR
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Rapid divergence in a recently isolated population of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.)
TLDR
The results suggest that the threespine stickleback may adapt to a novel environment more rapidly than would be predicted from conventional models of biological differentiation.
10 000 years later: evolution of body shape in Haida Gwaii three-spined stickleback
The body shape of 1303 adult male three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus from 118 populations on Haida Gwaii archipelago off the mid-coast of British Columbia was investigated using
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