author={Aparna Banerjee Dixit and Ram Kumar Dhaked and Syed Imteyaz Alam and Lokendra Singh},
  journal={Toxin Reviews},
  pages={175 - 207}
Toxins are produced by thousands of living species for increasing their chance of survival by modifying the physiology of other species. They are used either for defense or predation. They vary in their structural complexities ranging from formic acid used by ants to the multimillion Dalton protein toxins produced by several bacteria. All the most poisonous, fastest-acting toxins are neurotoxins. They specifically affect the nervous system of animals, including humans, by interfering with nerve… 

Biological Toxins as the Potential Tools for Bioterrorism

Six most danger toxins are focused on: botulinum toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxins, Clostridium perfringens toxins, ricin, abrin and T-2 toxin to help in understanding the problem of availability and potential of biological toxins.

Development of an immunodetection test for a botulinum-like neurotoxin produced by Clostridium sp. RKD.

A specific detection assay for the neurotoxin has been developed that may be useful both from food safety and clinical point of view.

Production and Stability Studies of a Neurotoxin Produced by Clostridium sp. RKD

A neurotoxigenic Clostridium sp. (RKD) isolated from intestine of decaying fish produced a neurotoxin that was neutralized by botulinum antitoxin (A+B+E) when tested by mouse protection bioassay. An

Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of neurotoxin gene from an environmental isolate of Clostridium sp.: comparison with other clostridial neurotoxins

The phylogenetic interrelationship between the neurotoxin gene of Clostridium sp.

Toxin weapons: from World War I to jihadi terrorism

The history of biological and chemical agents studied and produced as weapons has been well documented in different publications, including biomedical journals. Toxins are chemical substances of

Toxicity of cyanobacteria. Organotropy of cyanotoxins and toxicodynamics of cyanotoxins by species

As a result of blooming, some cyanobacteria (Microcystis, Anabaena, Planktothrix, etc.) produce toxins at concentrations that are high enough to poison and even kill animals and humans. According to



Neurotoxins affecting neuroexocytosis.

The mechanism of action of three groups of presynaptic neurotoxins that interfere directly with the process of neurotransmitter release is reviewed, whereas presynapses acting on ion channels are not dealt with here.

Properties and use of botulinum toxin and other microbial neurotoxins in medicine.

Crystalline botulinum toxin type A was licensed in December 1989 by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of certain spasmodic muscle disorders following 10 or more years of experimental treatment on human volunteers and its chemical, physical, and biological properties as applied to its use in medicine are described.

Neurotoxins that act on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in excitable membranes.

  • W. Catterall
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
  • 1980
This review focuses on experiments that have given insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of these toxins and have revealed common features of their interaction with voltage-sensi­ tive sodium channels.

Snake venoms and the neuromuscular junction.

A unique feature of timber rattlesnake venom is its ability to cause clinical myokymia, which likely results from a blockade of voltage gated K+ antibodies.

Marine neurotoxins: Ingestible toxins

This review discusses several seafood-borne toxins, including domoic acid, which acts on the central nervous system, and ciguatoxin-, brevetoxin-, saxitoxin-, tetrodotoxin-, and scombroid-related histamine toxicity, all of which act primarily on the peripheral nervous system.

Identification of the major steps in botulinum toxin action.

  • L. Simpson
  • Biology
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
  • 2004
This review seeks to identify and characterize all major steps in toxin action, from initial absorption to eventual paralysis of cholinergic transmission, as well as an agent that can be used to treat disease.

Immunological detection of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A in therapeutic preparations.

Toxic effects, pharmacokinetics and clearance of saxitoxin, a component of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), in cats.

Marine Toxins Origin, Structure, and Molecular Pharmacology

Methods of detection, metabolism, and pathophysiology of the brevetoxins, Pbtx-2 and PbTx-3, are summarized and an in vivo model of brevetoxin intoxication was developed in conscious tethered rats, which protected rats against the toxic effects of Brevetoxin.