MIF-1, a synthetic tripeptide with MSH-release inhibitory properties, has been reported to improve symptoms of Parkinson's disease, attenuate levodopa-related dyskinesias and diminish the dyskinetic movements of Tardive dyskinesia. More recently, MIF-1 has been reported partially to protect against the nigro-striatal dopamine depleting effects of MPTP in mice, raising the possibility that it may exert protective effects against the development of Parkinson's disease. There is evidence to suggest that MIF-1 increases nigro-striatal dopaminergic activity, but its ability to improve symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease, levodopa-related dyskinesias and Tardive dyskinesia cannot be explained solely on the basis of the drug's effect on striatal dopaminergic neurons. MIF-1 has been reported to potentiate the melanocyte-lightening effect of melatonin in rats and its effects in patients with Parkinson's disease and Tardive dyskinesia are associated with marked mood elevation. It is, therefore, possible that the effects of MIF-1 in movement disorders are associated with increased melatonin secretion. Thus, hypothalamic MIF may modulate nigro-striatal dopaminergic functions in part via pineal melatonin. Such an interaction represents a novel mechanism by which hypothalamic peptides act to modulate the expression of movement disorders.