• Corpus ID: 34141258


  author={Qing Mei Wang and Andrew Z. Luo and Xuejun Kong},
July 26, 2014 [N A J Med Sci. 2014;7(3):118-122. DOI: 10.7156/najms. 2014.0703118] Qing M. Wang, MD, PhD; Andrew Z. Luo; Xuejun Kong, MD, PhD The incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased significantly in the past decades, now affecting 1 out of 68 children in USA. The complexity of this disorder and the unclear mechanisms have hindered the development of an effective therapeutic regimen. Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the… 
1 Citations
Analyzing the Potential Biological Determinants of Autism Spectrum Disorder: From Neuroinflammation to the Kynurenine Pathway
In genetically predisposed subjects, aberrant neurodevelopment may derive from a complex interplay between inflammatory processes, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and Kynurenine pathway overexpression, and a new translational research approach is necessary.


Microglial activation in young adults with autism spectrum disorder.
Excessive microglial activation in multiple brain regions in young adult subjects with ASD is indicated, and similarities in the pattern of distribution of activated microglia in subjects with autism and control subjects may indicate augmented but not altered microglian activation in the brain in the Subjects with ASD.
Elevated immune response in the brain of autistic patients
ASD patients displayed an increased innate and adaptive immune response through the Th1 pathway, suggesting that localized brain inflammation and autoimmune disorder may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD.
Immune therapy in autism: Historical experience and future directions with immunomodulatory therapy
Prenatal, genetic, and observed immune aspects of the autism condition that may be risk factors in the presentation of the autistic clinical phenotype are reviewed and new theories that may lead to the development of disease modification or preventative therapeutic options in the near future are offered.
Immunity, neuroglia and neuroinflammation in autism
The presence of neuroglial and innate neuroimmune system activation in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with autism is demonstrated, findings that support the view that neuroimmune abnormalities occur in the brain of autistic patients and may contribute to the diversity of the autistic phenotypes.
Role of Microglia in Central Nervous System Infections
It is proposed that an enhanced understanding of microglia will yield improved therapies of central nervous system infections, since such therapies are, by and large, sorely needed.
Microglia and mast cells: two tracks on the road to neuroinflammation
  • S. Skaper, P. Giusti, L. Facci
  • Medicine
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2012
An overview of recent progress relating to the pathobiology of neuroinflammation, the role of microglia, neuroimmune interactions involving mast cells, in particular, and the possibility that mast cell‐microglia crosstalk may contribute to the exacerbation of acute symptoms of chronic neurodegenerative disease and accelerate disease progression, are provided.
Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism
It is indicated that innate neuroimmune reactions play a pathogenic role in an undefined proportion of autistic patients, suggesting that future therapies might involve modifying neuroglial responses in the brain.
Autism, gut-blood-brain barrier, and mast cells.
It is clear that vaccines do not seem to be the cause of autism, but some other immunologic process may be involved, and possible involvement of gastrointestinal (GI) pathophysiology in autism and ASD has been suggested.
Neuroinflammation and Behavioral Abnormalities after Neonatal Terbutaline Treatment in Rats: Implications for Autism
Findings indicate that β2-adrenoceptor overstimulation during an early critical period results in microglial activation associated with innate neuroinflammatory pathways and behavioral abnormalities, similar to those described in autism.
Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children
Improved behaviors were inversely correlated with patient age, indicating stronger effects on the younger patients, and the TZD pioglitazone should be considered for further testing of therapeutic potential in autistic patients.